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Volume -6 Issue - 12
Month [Year] -- December [2015]
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   No of Download : 34    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
Abstract

Today, in Alappuzha, boat races contribute significantly to the cultural and economic development of the district. The aquatic festivals have a major impact on the development of cultural tourism in Alappuzha. The boat race organizers are now popularizing the historic song Vanjippattu to attract tourists and trying to create the cultural image of Kerala in the minds of the tourists.

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   No of Download : 16    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
Abstract

पिछले दो दशकों से एशिया महाद्वीप शक्ति प्रदर्शन का अखाड़ा बना हुआ है। एक ओर जहां अमेरिका अपनी एक ध्रुवीय विश्व शक्ति की छवि को कायम रखने के लिए कुटनीतिक प्रयास जारी रखें है, वहीं दूसरी ओर चीन तेजी से इस अमेरिकी छवि को विभिन्न मंचों पर चुनौति देता नज़र आ रहा है।

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   No of Download : 4    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
Abstract

1834 ई0 में दास प्रथा के समाप्त होने के बाद बागान मालिको के सामने श्रमिको की कठिन समस्या उत्पन्न हो गयी थी। जिस कारण भारत से गिरिमिटिआ श्रमिको अर्थात बन्धुआ श्रमिको पर उत्प्रवास करवाया गया। लाखो की संख्या मे इन श्रमिको का गन्ना कालोनियो मे उत्प्रवास करवाया गया था। इन श्रमिको के साथ दासो के समान व्यवहार होता था। भारत से गन्ना कालोनियो तक पहुॅचने या उसके बाद भी इन श्रमिको को कठिन समस्याओ से गुजरना होता था। इन श्रमिको से अधिक से अधिक कार्य लिया जाता था। इस प्रकार की अनेक समस्याओ से त्रस्त होने के कारण इन्होने इस श्रमिक प्रणाली से छुटकारा पाना चाहा परन्तु वह अपने आप को मुक्त कराने मे असफल रहे। बाद के वर्षो मे भारतीय राष्ट्रीय कांग्रेसवादियो ने इस मुद्दे पर काफी जोर दिया जिस कारण यह श्रमिक प्रणाली 1920ई0 मे समाप्त हो गयी।

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   No of Download : 4    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
Abstract

Transgression-related interpersonal motivations are motivations experienced and expressed by a person towards the other person post transgression. The objective of the present study was to determine whether there are any genderdifferences between the younger (married for 5-10 years) and older (married for 20-25 years) couples with respect to the transgression-related interpersonal motivations – revenge, avoidance, and benevolence motivations. This study also aims to determine whether there are any correlations between the revenge, avoidance and benevolence motivations of transgression in younger and older couples. A non-probability purposive sampling method was used to select a sample of 40 couples, out of whom 20 couples were married for 5-10 years and 20 couples were married for 20-25 years.

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   No of Download : 4    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
Abstract

All the medicinal companies have adopted their marketing strategies according to the need of market because 100% positive response has been given by the respondents. 54% Allopathic companies prepared their marketing strategies in accordance to the needs of the patient. 90% of Ayurvedic medicinal companies have adopted their marketing strategies in accordance with the needs of the patients. Homeopathic medicinal companies has given 100 % acceptance that whatever marketing strategy has adopted by their medicinal company is all for the needs of the patients.

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   No of Download : 18    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
Abstract

विकसित देशों की तुलना में विकासशील देशों में महिलाओं की स्थिति कमजोर है । बल्कि समाज में इनका स्थान भी निम्नतर है। यद्यपि देश का लगभग आधा भाग, ं महिलाऐं आर्थिक रूप से आय का अर्जन करती है परन्तु परिवार को आर्थिक लाभ देने के बाद भी और कई बार पुरूषों से अधिक कार्य करने के बाद भी पारिवारिक क्षेत्र में महिलाओं की भूमिका को पुरूषांे के द्वारा नकार दिया जाता है जिससे भारत जैसे राष्ट्र में लैंगिक भेद की गंभीर स्थिति उत्पन्न होती रही है। ग्रामीण क्षेत्रों में महिलाओं की आर्थिक विसंगति जिन कारणों के कारण विकराल रूप ले रही है उनमें से गरीबी, बेरोजगारी परिवार में आदर और सम्मान की कमी महत्वपूर्ण है।

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   No of Download : 7    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
Abstract

This research is an attempt to identify social values of Indian society their categorization with specific reference to adolescents belonging to middle class families. It also seeks the aspect of changing values with societal change and their impact on target group. It was found that values are not clearly defined and categorized as social and cultural and are often seen as same. Indepth research was done to find the magnitude of the problem to assess the measuring indicators as well as to suggest the measures to control the situation

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   No of Download : 6    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
Abstract

The Indian insurance industry has moved into a more competitive arena with the arrival of private players in the market. Even though the Life Insurance Corporation of India reigns supreme in terms of market share, private companies are gearing up to woo the consumer. Any new player entering the insurance business would try to differentiate its products offering, but it is the service delivery system which would become the key differentiator. The main is to identify the most influencing factors on customer loyalty concerned in Insurance market. The research design used is descriptive. 200 policy holders are selected from the most populated blocks of Gobichettipalayam Taluk. Appropriate statistical tools are used for analysis.

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   No of Download : 26    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
Abstract

Abu'l-Fath Jalal ud-din Muhammad Akbar, popularly known as Akbar I literally "the great"; 15 October 1542]– 27 October 1605) and later Akbar the Great (Urdu: Akbar-e-Azam; literally "Great the Great") was Mughal Emperor from 1556 until his death. He was the third and one of the greatest rulers of the Mughal Dynasty in India. Akbar succeeded his father,Humayun, under a regent, Bairam Khan, who helped the young emperor expand and consolidate Mughal domains in India. A strong personality and a successful general, Akbar gradually enlarged the Mughal Empire to include nearly all of the IndianSubcontinentnorth of the Godavari river. His power and influence, however, extended over the entire country because of Mughal military, political, cultural, and economic dominance. To unify the vast Mughal state, Akbar established a centralised system of administration throughout his empire and adopted a policy of conciliating conquered rulers through marriage and diplomacy. In order to preserve peace and order in a religiously and culturally diverse empire, he adopted policies that won him the support of his non-Muslim subjects. Eschewing tribal bonds and Islamic state identity, Akbar strived to unite far-flung lands of his realm through loyalty, expressed through a Persianised culture, to himself as an emperor who had near-divine status.

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   No of Download : 7    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
Abstract

Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) play a dominant role in Indian Economy in terms of production, employment and export potential. These industries have recorded a high rate of growth after liberalization despite off competition from large scale industries and also Multinational Corporation. Government considers that, one of the main objects of industrialization is to provide high and stable level of employment in the Country. The survey conducted by World Bank in early 1978 revealed that a big push to small scale industries is the way to generate employment opportunities in developing country like India. It is estimated that one lakh investment in fixed assets in the small scale industries generates employment for four persons (DC MSME). In India small and Medium enterprises provides maximum employment next only to agricultural sector (Sivayya & Das, 1987).

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   No of Download : 13    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
Abstract

The decomposition of curvature tensor field was studied by Takano, K [1]. The decomposability of curvature tensor in Finsler space has been studied by Mishra and Lodhi [2]. They stablished some basic and useful results under decompose projective curvature. The object of the present paper is to study decomposition Well’s projective curvature tensor in recurrent conformal Finsler space. Some useful results have been investigated in this paper.

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   No of Download : 3    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
Abstract

The government intervention becomes very important in the agricultural sector as more than 70 percent of rural population is dependent on agricultural sector for their livelihood directly or indirectly. Despite the declining share in overall GDP, it is still very important in India as almost 60 percent of total labor force is engaged in agricultural activities, it also supply raw materials for manufacturing industries, and also a significance part of exports earnings. But the development of agricultural sector is necessary to ensure nations food security.

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   No of Download : 16    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
Abstract

महर्षि अष्टावक्र जी गर्भावस्था से ही आत्म-ज्ञानी तथा अध्यात्मवादी थे। ये शास्त्र शिरोमणि वेदपाठी बा्रह्मण महर्षि कहोड तथा सुजाता के पुत्र थे। इनके जन्मजात आत्मज्ञानी होने का विवरण महाभारत में वनपर्व के अन्तर्गत तीर्थयात्रा पर्व के 132वें अध्याय के 10 वें श्लोक से विदित होता है कि इन्होंने अपनी माँ के गर्भ से ही अपने पिता को अध्यात्म का उपदेश दिया था- सर्वां रात्रिमध्ययनं करोषि नेदं पितः सम्यगिवोपवर्तते1 अर्थात् पिताजी आप रात भर वेदपाठ करते हैं तो भी आपका वह अध्ययन अच्छी प्रकार से शुद्ध उच्चारण पूर्वक नहीं होता अपने अन्दर खोजो ।महर्षि कहोड़ इस प्रकार का उलाहना सुनकर अपमान अनुभव करते हुये कुपित हो उठे उस गर्भस्थ बालक को शाप देते हुये कहा- यस्मात् कुक्षौवर्तमानो ब्रवीषि तस्माद् वक्रो भवितास्यष्टकृत्वः2 अर्थात् तू अभी पेट में रहकर ऐसी टेढ़ी बाते बोलता है अतः तू आठ भागों से टेढ़ा हो जायेगा।इनके पिता की आर्थिक स्थिति बहुत ही कमजोर थी और इसे दूर करने के लिए महर्षि कहोड राजा जनक के दरबार में गए और राजा जनक से धन प्राप्ति हेतु निवेदन किया ।

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   No of Download : 7    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
Abstract

In the process of providing services to the consumer with the goal that the consumer can procure the services in the simplest way without even knowing the complexities of the whole process which has been deployed to make the final procurement so simple to the consumer that procurement of a service can happen with just click of few buttons like withdrawing cash from ATM or making online purchases etc., business activities have become complex over time so also the structure of various service providers to these businesses, one of key service providers being the banking sector. Further the growing need for globalization of businesses has taken these complexities to the next higher levels and even the banking sector is also under strain to control their own dynamic and complex internal operational systems in the process of providing financial services specially to a large business house where a failure implies losing the confidence of various stakeholders, market share-downsizing and even sharp declining of stock prices. The examples of banking institution failing due to uncontrolled and mis-managed operational risks are numerous.

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   No of Download : 7    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
Abstract

The era in which we live is a test conscious age in which tests and examinations at all stages of education, especially at Higher Secondary level have been considered an important and powerful tool for decision making in our competitive society. Students of all ages are being evaluated with respect to their achievements, skills and abilities. As such children are driven to perform rather than learn. There is undue emphasis on producing designer children rather than shaping them into universal human beings. Parents too are evaluated on the basis of childrens’ achievements and unless the child is seen as a super achiever, they feel unfulfilled. Admission to courses in medicine engineering and management are the most preferred choices for parents because these qualifications are seen to guarantee future job prospects. Therefore parents urge their children to perform well in the First Board Examination and to this end they may appoint three to four private tutors or more for special guidance.

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   No of Download : 5    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
Abstract

Nursing role efficacy is very essential in corporate hospitals to provide best services to the patients. Nurses need to develop different dimensions to improve their efficacy levels. To develop these kinds of dimensions, the nurses may need experience. Corporate hospitals are equipped with nurses who may be well experienced. But their role efficacy may differ due to stress, continuous duties, risks, pressure from higher authorities etc. So they need some kind of intervention on safety & personal hygiene, positive self concept, conflict management, communication, attitude, body language etc. Thus, the researcher conducted present study on “improving role efficacy of nurses in corporate hospitals through intervention”

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   No of Download : 6    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
Abstract

छायावादी कवियों ने एक ओर जहाँ नारी-सुलभ कोमलता, लज्जा और सुंदरता का और उसके प्रेम-रूपक के खुले कण्ठ से गीत गाये, वहीं निराला ने उसमें संपूर्ण मानस का अनुभव किया। कवि ने उस प्रेम-रूपा के जीवन के उन कोणों को सहजता से छुआ है, जो संसार के पटल पर उसके जीवन की वास्तविकता और उसके अस्तित्व का उद्घोष करती है। तत्कालीन साहित्यिक परिस्थितियों से विसंगत कवि ने नारी शोषण के साथ-साथ नारी-शक्ति, उसके सामर्थ्य, बुद्धिमत्ता और संघर्ष के गीत गाये।

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   No of Download : 5    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
Abstract

As far as India is concerned, the provisions relating to Capital Punishment are embodied in Indian Penal Code and Criminal Procedure Code. Indian Penal Code is the substantive law, which suggests the offences, which are punishable with death sentence. Criminal Procedure Code is the procedural law, which explains the procedure to be followed in death penalty cases. This article discusses the need of abolition of Capital Punishment in India. In the present scenario, when 140 countries have abolished death penalty, it is need of the hour in India to do the same.

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   No of Download : 17    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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The study was undertaken to analyze how top nations play football in FIFA world cup 2014-Brazil with different tactics in different situations. The objective of the study is to find out the impact of substitutions on the overall performance of the team in a given match. The match wise analysis of the pattern of playing and making substitution of all the teams participated in FIFA world cup2014 was observed carefully by watching videos and from the statistics available in the official website of FIFA and based on the information results of the present study are drawn by doing qualitative analysis of the available information. The variable selected for the study is the impact of substitutions. Since the study focused on the FIFA world cup 2014 held in Brazil, the entire case was considered as the sample of the study. The data was collected by using the secondary sources of data. Some of the sources of data collection for the present study are internet, magazines, journals, newspapers and television. The data for the study was the facts and figures available in various sources. The results of some countries like Germany, Belgium, Colombia, Netherlands, Switzerland and USA were excellent whereas countries like Argentina, Australia, Croatia, Ecuador, England, France, Ghana, Honduras, Iran, Italy, Japan, Nigeria, and Uruguay were very poor as far as goal scoring is concerned.

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   No of Download : 11    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
Abstract

महाभारत और रामायण दोनों ही भारत के प्राचीन इतिहास के प्रकाशस्तंभ है

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   No of Download : 6    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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A strong banking sector is important for flourishing economy. The failure of the banking sector may have an adverse impact on other sectors. Non-performing assets are one of the major concerns for banks in India. NPAs reflect the performance of banks. A high level of NPAs suggests high probability of a large number of credit defaults that affect the profitability and net-worth of banks and also erodes the value of the asset. The NPA growth involves the necessity of provisions, which reduces the overall profits and shareholders’ value. The issue of Non Performing Assets has been discussed at length for financial system all over the world. The problem of NPAs is not only affecting the banks but also the whole economy. In fact high level of NPAs in Indian banks is nothing but a reflection of the state of health of the industry and trade. The paper deals with understanding the concept of NPAs, its magnitude and major causes for an account becoming non-performing, projection of NPAs over next three years in Public sector banks and concluding remarks.

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   No of Download : 6    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Development has been a crucial factor of concern for a country like India since it’s Independence. India is categorized among the developing nations and has focused largely on setting up of infrastructure to achieve its developmental goals over the years. Land is the primary constituent required for achieving the developmental aims. But in the process of acquiring land for these development projects, people are voluntary-involuntary evicted from their habitats and livelihood that exposes them to impoverishment and marginalization. As a citizen of the nation every Indian has the right to life and personal liberty and being forcefully evicted from one’s land and `belonging is violation of their human rights. The paper examines incidents of displacement caused by development projects in West Bengal over the period of time, which have violated human rights of the inhabitants. The study in conducted based on secondary data found after reviewing related literature and intends to being in light the consequences of land acquisition on the displaced persons life and livelihood from a human rights perspective.

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   No of Download : 5    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
Abstract

एक अनुशासन के रूप में इसका अर्थ वह जनसेवा है जिसे 'सरकार' कहे जाने वाले व्यक्तियों का एक संगठन करता है। इसका प्रमुख उद्देश्य और अस्तित्व का आधार 'सेवा' है। इस प्रकार की सेवा का वित्तीय बोझ उठाने के लिए सरकार को जनता से करों और महसूलों के रूप में राजस्व वसूल कर संसाधन जुटाने पड़ते हैं। जिनकी कुछ आय है उनसे कुछ लेकर सेवाओं के माध्यम से उसका समतापूर्ण वितरण करना इसका उद्देश्य है। किसी भी देश में लोक प्रशासन के उद्देश्य वहां की संस्थाओं, प्रक्रियाओं, कार्मिक-राजनीतिक व्यवस्था की संरचनाओं तथा उस देश के संविधान में व्यक्त शासन के सिद्धातों पर निर्भर होते हैं। प्रतिनिधित्व, उत्तरदायित्व, औचित्य और समता की दृष्टि से शासन का स्वरूप महत्व रखता है, लेकिन सरकार एक अच्छे प्रशासन के माध्यम से इन्हें साकार करने का प्रयास करती है।

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   No of Download : 9    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
Abstract

प्रस्तुत शोध में कानपुर विश्वविद्यालय से सम्बद्ध शिक्षक-शिक्षा संस्थानों में कार्यरत शिक्षकों की कार्य-सन्तुष्टि पर क्षेत्र के प्रभाव का विश्लेषणात्मक अध्ययन किया गया है। अध्ययन हेतु शोधकर्ता ने विवरणात्मक सर्वेक्षण विधि का प्रयोग किया है। न्यादर्श चयन में साधारण यादृच्छिक प्रतिचयन विधि का प्रयोग किया है। प्रदत्तों के संकलन हेतु डा0 एस0पी0 गुप्ता एवं डा0 जे0पी0 श्रीवास्तव द्वारा निर्मित एवं प्रमापीकृत अध्यापक कृत्य संतोष मापनी का प्रयोग किया गया। इस परीक्षण में कार्य सन्तुष्टि के लिए उत्तरदायी 20 घटकों को समावेशित किया गया। इस प्रकार परीक्षण में कार्य सन्तुष्टि के बहुआयामी पक्षों को शामिल किया गया। इसमें 80 प्रश्न हैं, इन प्रश्नों को 300 के न्यादर्श पर प्रशासित किया गया। अध्ययन के परिणामस्वरूप ज्ञात हुआ किग्रामीण एवं शहरी बी0एड0 शिक्षकों की कार्य सन्तुष्टि में भी सार्थक अन्तर है। शहरी बी0एड0 शिक्षक ग्रामीण बी0एड0 शिक्षकों की तुलना में अधिक कार्य सन्तुष्ट है।

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   No of Download : 3    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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The Present research paper explores about the concept of Money and Moral through the celebrated novels of R.K. Narayan. More one its aim is to draw up the broader parameters to project how the prevailing social milieu as the mainspring exercised its inexorable and relentless impact on the role of money as morally debasing and disfiguring as well as preserving phenomena in social context and commerce. Morals do not descend from about, her do they spring from below. They proceed from the prevailing social scene which is not only domain but also determines character and action. This is the quintessence of Narayan’s fiction.

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India falls under low income class according to World Bank. It is second populated country in the world and around 70 % of its population lives in rural area. 60% of people depend on agriculture, as a result there is chronic under-employment and per capita income is only $ 3262. This is not enough to provide food to more than one individual. The obvious result is object poverty, low rate of education, low sex ratio, and exploitation. The major factor account for high incidence of rural poverty is the low asset base. According to Reserve Bank of India, about 51 % of people house possess only 10% of the total asset of India .This has resulted low production capacity both in agriculture (which contribute around 22-25% of GDP) and Manufacturing sector. Rural people have very low access to institutionalized credit (from commercial bank).

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21वीं शताब्दी पर्यावरण के प्रति जागरूकता व चिन्तन लेकर आयी है। परिणामस्वरूप विश्व के जागरूक देशों द्वारा अन्र्तराष्ट्रीय स्तर पर मंच बनाकर इस समस्या को उठाकर उसका समाधान करने हेतु कई नियम बनाये जा रहे हैं। भारत ने भी पर्यावरण के संरक्षण व संवर्धन के प्रति अपनी चिंता जाहिर करते हुए इस विषय में आयोजित विश्व स्तरीय सम्मेलनों में प्रतिभाग कर अपनी बात रखी है।

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नारी का लावण्य कला का तलाम भाव है।1 सृष्टि के मूल में रहने वाली नारी कला के ललाम रूप का मुख्य प्राण एवं समाज की शक्ति रही है। साहित्य जीवन के यथार्थ को समग्र रूप में अभिव्यक्त करता है। यह समग्रता नारी की अभिव्यक्ति के बिना पूर्ण नहीं होती। अतः साहित्य सृजन के आरम्भ से नारी वण्र्य-विषय रही है। ‘‘नारी जागरण की दृष्टि से तो साहित्य उसके स्वत्व और व्यथा का समर्थ व्याख्याकार ही रहा है। कवियों के कंठ से भारत की जय ही नहीं गूंजी, नारी की जय भी ध्वनित हुई है। कथाकारों की आँखों में भारत माता की परवशता पर ही आँसू नहीं आए हैं, विवश नारी के बंधनों पर भी आये हैं।2

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The increasing trends towards globalization threw light on the necessity of International Trade Organization who promotes multilateral trade with elimination of tariff and non-tariff barriers among different nations of the world. The WTO came into being on January 1, 1995 and is the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) which was created in 1947. In this paper describes WTO functions, the present issues and challenges faced by under developed countries. The WTO’s headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland.

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The aim of this study was to assess and compare motives on exercise participation among non-sports boys and non-sports girls. Sixty non-sports boys and non-sports girls (n=60) who are not related to any kind of sport were selected randomly with age ranging between 18-28years. The subjects were taken from Sharda University and Amity University. The data was collected by using the Exercise Motivations Inventory 2 (EMI-2) developed by Markland and Ingledew. The data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics and independent sample ‘t’ test. There was no significant difference in Stress Management, Revitalization, Enjoyment, Challenge, Social Recognition, Affiliation, Competition, Health Pressures, Ill-Health Avoidance, Positive Health and Appearance among non-sports boys and non-sports girls of Sharda University and Amity University. While there was a significant difference in Weight Management, Strength & Endurance, and Nimbleness among non-sports boys and non-sports girls of Sharda University and Amity University. The level of significance was set at 0.05.

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जब से महिला सशक्तिकरण वर्ष मनाया गया है तभी से नारी , महिला व स्त्री शब्द विषय के केन्द्र में आने लगा है । आज हर तरफ स्त्री चेतना , स्त्री अस्मिता , स्त्री विमर्श आदि की बुहार लगी है । स्त्री अपनी स्थिति को कायम करने के लिए सदियों से संघर्षरत रही है । आज उसके अधिकारों की मांग में भी परिवर्तन आया है , जहाँ पहले वह लोकतांत्रिक अधिकार जैसे - शिक्षा , रोजगार , संपत्ति , संसद में प्रवेश पाना आदि तक ही सीमित थी , वहीं आज इन अधिकारों की मांग में स्त्रीं पर पुरूष का दवाब और अधिकार के विरूद्ध संघर्ष , कार्यस्थान में उनकी गिरी हुई स्थिति , समाज , संस्कृति और धर्म के द्वारा दिए गए नीचे दर्जे के विरूद्ध संघर्ष तथा बच्चे पैदा करने और पालने जैसे दोहरे बोझ से मुक्ति आदि भी शमिल हो गए हैं । आज की स्त्री अपने विषयों , मुद्दों , अवस्थाओं , समस्याओं के बारे में सोचने लगी हैं ।

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शिक्षक शिक्षा में अकादमिक स्तर को बनाए रखना आज की परिस्थितियों में एक चुनौतीपूर्ण विषय बन गया है। प्रशिक्षण के क्षेत्र में कई कमजोरियाँ दृष्टिगोचर हो रही हैं। प्रायः यह देखा व अनुभव किया जाता है कि शिक्षक अभ्यास के दौरान सीखी गयी विधियों, कौशल एवं कलाओं का उपयोग शिक्षण बन जाने के बाद या सेवारत प्रशिक्षण पाने के उपरान्त कक्षा कक्ष में अधिकतर प्रशिक्षणार्थी नहीं करते हैं। वह भाषण पद्धति का प्रयोग करता है तथा रटे रटाये ज्ञान को छात्रों तक सम्प्रेषित करने में व्यस्त रहता है।

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The present study assessed menstruation related hygiene and practice among un-married adolescent girls of Raichur district.The study adopted community based cross-sectional approach, 428 respondents were selected using a multistage stratified random sampling method. The participants overall mean age at menarche was 12.5. Around 16.5 percent of the adolescent girls using sanitary pads, 36.7 percent were using only cloths and 46.8 percent of the respondents were using both cloth and sanitary pads. Most of Hindus and Christian girls were using cloths during menses; more number of the Muslim respondents was using sanitary pads. Using cloth was highest among Scheduled caste respondents followed by Scheduled tribes. The girls should be educated about the process of menstruation, use of sanitary pads and its proper disposal.

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Higher education is of vital importance for the country, as it is powerful tool to build knowledge based society of the 21st century. Higher Education means education imparted to students beyond schooling to say study beyond the level of secondary education. The present study is focused at exploring the choices of the participating undergraduate students of commerce stream. What are the choices for decision-making criteria, which have influenced the students of commerce stream participation in higher education? What are the various individual, personal and non personal reasons that attribute to their decisions about selection of course, institutions and preparation for future career? Due to the various recent developments in the economic environment of the country in last two decades, market based structures have emerged in all the spheres of social, political and economic life. In recent years the spread of the courses have shown itself to be dependent on the market demand and the participation of students in Higher Education also a bent towards the market-oriented courses. The study therefore would try to explore and describe these aspects of higher education from the point of view of students’ participation in Higher Education.

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In modern days the success of most of the organisations depend more on human assets than on physical or financial assets, like building, equipments, manufacturing facilities, and technologies, all these can be readily purchased, but all these resources managed by Human resource so that Human resource plays a vital role in an organisation. Employee turnover has been a never-ending problem for most of the organization especially the developing countries like India. Employees Turnover be it voluntary or involuntary can be costly and disruptive to organization success. Voluntary employee’s turnover affects negatively on organisations performance moreover losing a talented key employee would cost 3-4 times of his annual salary so that retaining key employees for longer period of time is very important. This study tries to analyze factors influencing on voluntary employees turnover, its impact on organisation and key strategies to Retain employees for longer period, for this purpose study uses secondary data from different books research journals, articles, important reports etc.

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Caste systems are a type of social stratification system, hereditary by nature, and found in some cultures. Considered restrictive to an individual's social mobility, these systems typically result in situations where certain classifications of individuals — based purely on accident of birth rather than on their actions or character — are oppressed or marginalized. Though caste may not be the only variable that can affect social conditions, where used, the systems are thought to be objectionable not only from a secular view but from a religious view as well (despite the fact that most caste systems are based on religious considerations). More research is necessary to determine how the influences of caste interact with other variables in order to better understand the effects of this system.

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The quest for quality has been the major concern of the entire human civilization. What is quality? Whenever quality in education is discussed it may be important to reflect on, what is understood by the term quality. Many educators, researchers and politicians have tried to define this term and a number of different definitions can be found in the literature. One almost classical definition is the way in which Coombs (1985) described quality in his book “The World Crises in Education: The View from the Eighties”: “Qualitative dimensions means much more than the quality of education as customarily defined and judged by student learning achievements, in terms of traditional curriculum and standards. Quality pertains to the relevance of what is taught and learned - to how well it fits the present and future needs of the particular learners. It also refers to significant changes in the educational system itself, in the cultural and political environment.” (Coombs, 1985, p. 105)

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This research paper attempts to study the emergence of the term dalit and its various interpretations. Though the opinion of prominent figures like Gandhi, Ambedkar, Phule, EV Ramaswami, Dalit Panthers Movement, Marxist, and others are analyzed, the contemporary writers have not been included in this paper. Further I analyse the term ‘dalit literature’ and its various implications. I argue that the representation of dalit literature celebrates the dalit condition as an unparalleled one and a permanent entity. It ignores the differences within the dalit communities; rather they concentrate on building on similarities. Through these similarities they create a dalit identity and culture that defines ‘Dalitness’ which is not only national but international in its inspiration. To this end dalit writers find and celebrate the similarities of dalit literature with Black literature inspired by the Panthers Movements in USA. Thus transformation of the ‘dalit’ identity” represents a new type of political assertion that confronts, counters and redesigns older forms of struggles, against both class and caste exploitation.

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Indian stock market has seen lots of ups and downs in past few years. Indian indices were all time high in second month of 2015 while in the start of 2016, midterm bottom was touched. The situation was changing rapidly. The markets in India started booming, soon after the majority mandate achieved by BJP government under the leadership of Narendra Modi. This optimism carried the indices to the all time high. But Indian markets are seen to be very fragile and volatile in past few months, where it touches its 20 months low figure.

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The young generations are the worst victims of evils of drug addiction. Substance abuse as a social phenomenon is all the more worrisome because of its prevalence among youth. Over the last two decades or so, countries all over the world have seen an alarming rise in the incidence of substance abuse amongst the most productive and crucial section of its population. The young people are in their perennial search for happiness and they find a shortcut to happy life in drugs. But before realizing that they are chasing shadows, they get trapped in and in the end the futility of their search stares at them on the face. This paper deals with Causes of Drug use, impact of drug usage, and the need for intervention and the methods of prevention of drug addiction.

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Availability of power is one of the biggest inputs necessary for the sustained growth of any economy. This becomes even more important for a state like Tamil Nadu, which is one of the most industrialized and urbanized states in India. Over the last few years, Tamil Nadu has been facing massive power deficits. According to the CEA, the state was expected to have a power deficit of around 18 percent in 2012-13. As a result, in recent times the state is facing huge power cuts. On an average of 3-4 hours power cuts are being experienced by consumers in the state. Given this situation this paper attempts to look at the reasons for the growing power deficits in Tamil Nadu with the following objectives, 1) to analyze the electricity power deficits in Tamil Nadu, 2) to identify the renewable sources in which Tamil Nadu can improve and 3) to examine the growth performance of wind power.

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Lead poisoning occurs when a person swallows, absorbs, or inhales lead in any form. The result can be damaging to the brain, nerves, and many other parts of the body. Acute lead poisoning, which is somewhat rare, occurs when a relatively large amount of lead is taken into the body over a short period of time. Chronic lead poisoning — a common problem in children — occurs when small amounts of lead are taken in over a longer period. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines childhood lead poisoning as a whole-blood lead concentration equal to or greater than 10 micrograms/dL. In 1890, the first case of lead poisoning was discovered in Australia. However the source of the lead was not traced to the paint on the verandahs and railings until 1904. In the United States the first recorded case of lead poisoning occurred in 1914 when a little baby ate the paint chips from his crib; this characteristic of children to taste everything the touch is referred to as pica. Lead is an extremely common metal that can be found almost anywhere. Some common sources of lead include: water, paint, electric storage batteries, insecticides, auto body shops, gasoline, etc. Even though there have been steps taken against lead with the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act, lead is still a public health risk today. What does lead do exactly that is so harmful to the human body? More specifically how does lead effect the nervous system?

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In our criminal justice system, generally speaking, the prosecutor representing the State accuses the defendant of the commission of the alleged crime; and the law requires him to prove his case beyond reasonable doubt. The criminal justice system as such recognizes equal rights and opportunities to both the parties, i.e. the State and the accused person, to present their cases before the court. But under the prevailing condition in India, the equal legal rights and opportunities would in practice operate unequally and harshly, affecting adversely the poor indigent accused persons who are unable to engage competent lawyers for their defence. The system therefore, departs from its strict theoretical passive instance and attempts to provide legal aid at State costs to indigent accused persons to defend themselves in criminal trial.

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आध्यात्मिकता कई अलग-अलग मान्यताओं और पद्धतियों के लिये प्रयुक्त होने वाला एक व्यापक शब्द है। इसकी सामान्य परिभाषा यह हो सकती है कि यह ईश्वरीय उद्दीपन की अनुभूति प्राप्त करने का एक दृष्टिकोण है, जो धर्म से अलग है। आध्यात्मिकता को ऐसी परिस्थितियों में अक्सर धर्म की अवधारणा के विरोध में रखा जाता है, जहाँ धर्म को संहिताबद्ध, प्रामाणिक, कठोर, या स्थिर रूप में ग्रहण किया जाता है, जबकि अध्यात्म एक विरोधी स्वर है, जो आम बोल चाल की भाषा में स्वयं आविष्कृत प्रथाओं या विश्वासों को दर्शाता है अथवा उन प्रथाओं और विश्वासों को जिन्हें बिना किसी औपचारिक निर्देशन के विकसित किया गया है। इसे एक अभौतिक वास्तविकता के अभिगम के रूप में उल्लिखित किया गया है।

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This paper aims to reflect the true picture of higher education in hilly areas of central Himalayas, assess the challenges and account the practicability of policies in practice not in papers. Based on a recent College survey which includes detailed information of day to day challenges among college student especially among girls, responds to a wide range of variables, including parental education and motivation, social background, dependency ratios, work opportunities, Quality of education etc. the state of Uttarakhand is fully accounted for by these variables. Analytical Tools was Logit Model and using the random and purposive sampling for collecting the data, total sample size was 100 students, this is a behavioral study about student’s challenges in Higher Education. Final result for the logit regression model indicated that all the variable (Gender, Economic status, Distance,

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The history of sports in India dates back to the Vedic era. Physical culture in ancient India was fed by a powerful fuel--religious rites. There were some welldefined values like the mantra in the Atharva-Veda, saying," Duty is in my right hand and the fruits of victory in my left". In terms of an ideal, these words hold the same sentiments as the traditional Olympic oath: "......For the Honour of my Country and the Glory of Sport." Badminton probably originated in India as a grownup's version of a very old children's game known in England as battledore and shuttlecock, the battledore being a paddle and the shuttlecock a small feathered cork, now usually balled a "bird."

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In all our ancient epics, the Ramayana, the Mahabhrata and the Kadambari of Banabhatta, tribal life has been dignified beautifully. Banabhatta has depicted Matangaka, a young hero of Sabar’s army as very strong and brave. Guha, the Nishadraj has been presented as a man of great power in the Ramayana. Sabari in the Ramayana is considered as an idol of devotion. Eklavya of the Mahabharata will be immortal because of his great sacrifice. The tribals have always proved themselves as courageous, loyal, devoted, honest and skilled. Women still enjoy great respect in all tribal communities. Unlike modern society, Nature is revered as mother by all tribals. But despite having all these qualities, due to modernization, today they have become the victims of injustice and exploitation.

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