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Volume -6 Issue - 2
Month [Year] -- February [2015]
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विद्यार्थियों का नेतृत्व व्यवहार वातावरण पर निर्भर करते हैं और षिक्षक को प्रत्येक विद्यार्थी के व्यक्तित्व का ज्ञान होना चाहिए, जिससे विद्यार्थियों की ऊर्जा को उचित राह में गतिमान किया जा सके। संवेगों का दमन करना व्यक्ति के षरीर और मन के साथ अन्याय करना है इससे उसकी अभिवृद्धि और विकास पर कुप्रभाव पड़ सकता है। उसमें भय जेैसी षारीरिक स्थितियां, उचित कौषल की कमी के कारण पैदा होती है। विद्यार्थियों में सामाजिक गुण जिन्हंे हम पाठ्यसहगामी क्रियाओं द्वारा अर्जित कर सकते हैं वे हेैं - एक-दूसरे के प्रति सहानुभूति, भाईचारा, सहनषीलता, सहयोग, सद्भाव, लक्ष्य प्राप्तिकरण हेतु मिलकर बढ़ना, नियमों का पालन करना, आज्ञापालन, षीर्घ और सही समय पर निर्णय करना तथा अन्य सभी नागरिक गुणों को ग्रहण करना आदि। ये सभी पाठ्यसहगामी क्रिया के माध्यम से विकसित एवं स्थिर हो सकती है।

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Portuguese arrived in India Hindu medicine had progressed little beyond the stage at which it had been left by the famous medical triad of ancient India- Charaka substrata and Vagabhata who lived respectively in the first fifth and eighth centuries. The mission hospitals were also used for propagating Christianity, where patients were lured towards conversion. To some extent, this method exists even today. The Muslims, therefore, opposed the adoption of the allopathic system of medicine and took keen interest in indigenous Unani Tib and Ayurvedic systems.

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Abstract Despite Afghanistan is known to everyone sight as a terrain and landlocked country from its inception to independence but its recent violence and terrorism image created a massive panic among the world community and left out lacksof patients in the hospital with serious injuries .It is not a periodically or naturally originating disease or health problems in Afghanistan rather than all these health problems comes from the manmade destruction plane by bomb and guns. Indeed to treat this cluster injuries and gun made wound there is no such a modernized equipment and space to accommodate patients simultaneously. Because of low medical infrastructure and doctors and nursepatients are getting quite difficult to access medical service in Afghanistan. Since it is being subject of terrorism which has to have infrastructure hospitals with the support of south Asia family for an immediate medical service there rather than struggling to stop terrorism. Therefore, in this task India has been projecting with Afghanistan development interest for example; India has constructed Indira Gandhi child hospital with medical infrastructure and has send doctors for medical service.

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Abstract Observation in predator naiad of pantala flavescens shows successful differential predation of different Larvae instars of Culex quinquefasciatus with greater preference if the II. instar larvae and least preference to iv. instar larvae ,decreasing the percentage predation with increasing density in a niche of mixed diet of oll Larval instar the predation efficiency of naiad of Pantala flavescens increased with poor pupal predation 10 Mosquitoes pupal with in 30 minutes and on the other hand 18-20 mosquito larval in 30.minutes.This observation Indicate that the naiad prefer the mosquito larvae compare than pupae,with increasing handling time indicating that Predatory efficiency and energy utilization is age based. Food deprivation and water volume (ml) along with the depth of water reveals optimum predation 20+0.13larval/30 minutes . these result when analysed statically were found to be significant suggesting a large scale culture of Pantala flavescens in fresh water body to biologically and Effectively control the C.quinquefasciatus larvae.

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Introduction: The balance of payment is a systematic record of all economic transactions of residents of a country with the rest of the world during a given period of time. BOP has two components-Balance on current account and Balance on capital account. The main purpose of keeping these records is to know the international economic position of a country which helps the Government in making decisions on monetary and fiscal policies on the one hand, and trade and payments policies on the other. When BOP of a country is in equilibrium, the demand for the domestic currency is equal to its supply. If the balance of payments moves against a country, adjustments must be made by encouraging exports of goods, services or other forms of exports, or by discouraging imports of all kinds. No country can have a permanently unfavorable balance of payments. Total liabilities and total assets of a nation must balance in the long run.

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Abstract: FDI plays a vital role for economic development of any developing country. The importance of FDI in India has increased significantly over the last two decades. FDI serves as a link between investment and saving. Many developing countries like India, are facing the deficit of savings. This problem can be solved with the help of Foreign Direct Investment. Foreign investment helps in reducing the defect of BOP and provides the base and pre requisite for rapid GDP growth. This study is entirely based on the secondary data. This paper makes an in-depth study to analyse the scenario of FDI and its impact on Indian economy. For this purpose empirical data are estimated for the period 1991 to 2014. For this purpose we use some useful statistical tools like correlation and linear regression analysis. For data analysis SPSS software has been used. And we conclude that there is significant effect of FDI on India’s GDP.

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Abstract The management of stress has become an urgent strategy for Indian companies because of the alarming increase in the incidence of reported stress among employees in recent years and its impact on the bottom line. As techniques, procedures, and systems are becoming more and more complicated with the use of advance technology, stress has become unavoidable on the part of the employees. And what adds to this is the fact that every employee cannot cope with such rapid changes taking place in the jobs which ultimately affects their physical and mental health. An attempt has been made through this paper to know the reasons of stress among employees and the ways used by employees to cope with the stress generated at workplace.

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Abstract The principal component of an organization is its ‘human resource’ or ‘people at work’.There were no organization thatcan succeed without a certain level of commitment and effort of its employees. Employee satisfaction is the terminology used to describe whether employees are happy and contented and fulfilling their desires and needs at work. The objective of the study was to understand the relation betweenemployees’ satisfaction andnonmonetary compensation.The descriptive researchdesign was usedfor study. Data was analysed by applying percentage analysis,correlation and regression analysis. Based on the review ofliterature a conceptual model of employee satisfaction and nonmonetary compensation was developed and ten factors ofnonmonetary compensation were identified which affect employees satisfaction. The data analysis revealed that employees’ was highly satisfied with the leave policy, medical benefits and insurance and dissatisfied with overtime policy and fringe benefits. From thecorrelation and regression analysis the hypothesis was proved that nonmonetary compensation had significant relationship with employees’ satisfaction.

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1.1 HISTORY OF PARSI MIGRATION Parsis are members of the close-knit Zoroastrian community in or from the Indian subcontinent, and is a descendant of people who, in the 8th century, emigrated to the west-coast of (what is now) India from the Persian Province ‘Pers’ or ‘Pars’ , from which the word Parsi is derived, to escape religious persecution by the Arab conquerors of Persia. The Parsi immigrants adopted the customs of the place where they had first taken shelter. History of Parsis in India began with the arrival of Maga priests in India, possibly during Kushana dynasty. Then Parsis arrived in India from Khorasan and settled at Sanjan in Gujarat which the first Parsi settlement in India.

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Retail consists of the sale of physical goods or merchandise from a fixed location such as a departmental store in small or individual lots for direct consumption by the purchaser. Retailers are at the end in the supply chain.various factors leading to development of retail sector in india are increase indisposal incomes of middle-classChanging demographicsInternet brought awareness and online shopping facility, etc.though there are various challenges in retail industry such as high real estate costs,supply chain inefficiencies, competition from the unorganised sector ,lack of basic infrasturebut we can see a significant growth as well.

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Training is vital to every company. Employee training is essential for an organisation’s success. Not only will the savings pay off for the company, but the company can increase productivity from the employees. This study gives a clear understanding about the effectiveness and importance of the training in respect of employees’ performance in the organisation. The primary purpose of organisation training is to provide skills, which employees need to make the business better overall. In essence, trained employees can help to achieve high quality performance in a shorter period of time. The goal of the training is to master the competencies and apply in day to day activities .the purpose of this paper is to present conceptual study established on the employee training and development program and its benefit. This paper also inspects the structure and elements of training and development in Infosys and later study what are the present positive outcomes for employees and organisations.

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Operations management is defined as ‘the design, operation, and improvement of production systems that create the firm’s primary products or services’ Operations management decisions are not the same as decisions at the operational level. Within operations management decisions must be taken at different levels, ranging from, For example, operational decisions about hourly schedules of jobs in a work centre, via monthly decisions about aggregated master sales and production plans, to strategic decisions concerning production capacity and other technological decisions involved in engineering a new production plant.

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Suicide ideators are a high risk group for different psychiatric problems. The present study was mainly aimed at understanding the psychiatric conditions of suicide ideators. For this, 200 (males and females) students of 11th and 12th grades with the age ranging from 15 to 18 years was selected from various Public Schools (English Medium) of Gurgaon. All the subjects were tested with Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS;Beck et al., 1988) and Personality Assessment Inventory by Morey, 1999. Then, on the basis of their scores on BSS, 200 subjects were identified and divided in two groups i.e. Suicide Ideators Group (N=100) and Suicide Non-ideators Group(N=100). Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics (Mean & SD) to ascertain the normalcy of data, t-ratios to compare the two groups in terms of their mean scores of nine clinical scales. Results revealed that suicide ideators scored significantly high on eight clinical scales out of nine scales. Overall findings revealed the suicide ideators tend to develop the neurotic and psychotic spectrum disorders.

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The European Union is an outcome of unique economic and political partnership between 28 European countries based on the idea of regional integration. It is a successful experiment on cooperation by the European countries destroyed by the two world wars. In the latter half of the 20th century, it has emerged as a unique supranational organisation which aims to promote peace, growth and development not only inside Europe, but also all across the world. The EU is globally appreciated for its approach and efforts for democracy promotion in all corners of the world. Democracy is not just an objective of the EU to be achieved through aid and assistance; it’s a concept which determines the nature and scope of its each and every activity both inside and outside the EU. It’s the thread which ties the member states of the EU with each other. Democracy occupies pivotal position in almost all the declarations, policies and progammes of the EU and it promotes the practice of democracy not only in political sphere, but in the socio-economic spheres as well through the instruments of soft power which makes it a unique actor in the global politics of the contemporary era.

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In all societies, many women suffer from pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS). In fact, PMS is the term for a group of emotional, mental, and physical symptoms that affect women during the days leading up to menstrual period. The symptoms are various such as fluid retention, mood changes, depression, weight gain, urinary tract infection, breathlessness, nasal congestion, headaches, susceptibility to conjunctivitis, etc. The exact cause of PMS is unknown, but it is thought to be related to hormonal imbalances. Also at the time of menstruation, some women suffer from mild to severe pains in the abdominal area. The uterus under goes strong and frequent contractions. Women who suffer from Dysmenorrhoea (Menstrual pain and cramping) have uterine contractions that are particularly painful. Dysmenorrhoea is thought to be caused by prostaglandins, a natural chemical that stimulates the uterus to contract to expel blood. Prostaglandins make blood vessels constrict, slowing down blood flow to the uterus. Hence, the present investigator thought of studying the effect of Yoga and Aerobic exercises on Health related physical fitness of College girls with irregular menstruation. One Thousand two hundred (n=1200) female subjects, age: 17-19 yrs., from S.N.D.T College, Churchgate, Mumbai – 400 020 were surveyed for menstruation status.

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भारतीय पर्यावरण तथा संस्कृति के कवि बाणभट्ट ने सांस्कृतिक पर्यावरण के महत्त्वपूर्ण अंग आध्यात्मिक पर्यावरण को अपनी कृतियों में समुचित स्थान दिया है। आध्यात्मिक मूल्यों के द्वारा आध्यात्मिक पर्यावरण चेतना का संचार करने वाले कवि बाणभट्ट पाठकों की हृदय कली को विकसित करने वाले आध्यात्मिक रूप की रचना के कारण जितने मान्य हैं उतने ही वे भारतीय संस्कृति के विशुद्ध रूप के चित्रण करने के कारण भी आदरणीय है।

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पुराण भारतीय संस्कृति का वह मेरूदण्ड है- वह आधार पीठ है जिस पर आधुनिक भारतीय समाज अपने नियमन को प्रतिष्ठित करता है। पुराणों से ही भारतीय जीवन का आदर्श, सभ्यता, संस्कृति तथा विद्या-वैभव के उत्कर्ष का वास्तविक ज्ञान प्राप्त हो सकता है। पुराण इस अकाट्य प्रमाण के द्योतक हैं कि भारत पर्यावरण का संरक्षक एवं आदि जगद्गुरु था। पुराणों में पद-पद पर पर्यावरण-संरक्षण की चर्चा परिलक्षित है यद्यपि इस काल में पर्यावरण-प्रदूषण की समस्या नहीं थी परन्तु मानव स्वभाव को जानने वाले ऋषियों ने वैदिक वाङ्मय में जीवन की इस प्रकार व्याख्या की जिससे पर्यावरण की समस्या उत्पन्न ही न हो और कहीं समस्या उत्पन्न हो तो उसके समाधान भी जुटाने का प्रयत्न ऋषियों द्वारा किया गया। मंत्रदृष्टा ऋषियों ने प्रकृति तथा मानव की आवश्यकताओं के बीच सामंजस्यपूर्ण सम्बन्ध के महत्त्व को पहचानकर उपभोग के स्थान पर त्याग का जीवन-दर्शन विकसित किया।

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As a matter of fact, the soldier poets Wilfred Edward Salter Owen (1893-1918) and Siegfried Loraine Sassoon (1886-1967) had the firsthand experience and actual knowledge of what war can do, both to the body and to the psyche.Concerning Sassoon and Owen’s dualistic outlook or ambivalent approach toward the whole universe which was mostly because of their direct involvement in the World War One, from one hand, they rebel against destiny and the organisation of the universe, then again, both of them, at the end, return to them and show a sort of patience and tolerance. Consistent with Freudian psychoanalytic notions of substitutions and replacements, ambivalence demonstrated in their poetry such as Sassoon’s “Suicide in the trenches” and Owen’s “Strange Meeting” appears to be like the child-father love-hatred relationship and fight to own/attract the mother.

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This paper aims to understand the advancement of e-learning and to carve a snapshot of its roles and challenges in the course of imparting visual art education. The paper analyses the role of visual art and different approaches of e-learning. With the introduction of internet since 1990’s, e-learning became the hot spot in the educational field. The e-learning, even though commonly implies with distance education, it occupies a substantial position, due to advanced technology oriented. It plays a vital role in the education system since Information and Communication Technology (ICT) aids, plenty of resources to enhance the teaching skills and learning ability. It provides us interactive audio, visual education, virtual tutors etc. Since, from the time immemorial visual art took a great role for the means of representing our ideas in social norms, values and culture. Visual representation is more attractable and perhaps mightier than wordy expressions.

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To maintain peace and harmony in a country like India, which has different hues and shades of culture and diversity, effective medium of communication right from grass root level is required. For communication at grass root level, traditional media are the most potent medium of communication. As for accessing to traditional media no electric, no 2G/3G is required in short zero technology media. Manipur one of the border states of India is rich in traditional folk media as different traditional media with their live performance and presentation bring development, harmony, and recreation in the life of the people. ‘Shumang Lila’ which literally means ‘courtyard play’ is one such kind of the traditional media of Manipur, it is one of the most potent and effective medium of communication considering its wide reach, effective delivery mechanism and ability to mobilize public opinion. In a democratic society, public opinion is like a voice of change and improvement.

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Technology has ushered in a new era of mass media, bringing with it great promise and great concerns about the effect on children’s development and wellbeing (Wartella& Jennings, 2000). Marlowe (1986) wrote that social skill is the ability to understand the feelings, thoughts and behavior of persons, in interpersonal situations and to act appropriately upon that understanding. This study aims to find the effect of frequent usage of technology on overall social skills and the six dimensions of social skills (viz., Presentation Skill, Interaction Skill, Conversation Skill, Social Integration, Attitude Towards Other Children, and Attitude Towards Adults) of children. The parents of arandomly selected sample of 60 students in the age range of 8-11 yearsresponded to an information schedule and to the Social Skills Problem Behavior Checklist (Mathur& Aurora, 2005).

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Gender has always been a significant term in feminist criticism. In practice it referred primarily to women and women’s writing. All women’s writing has been studied from feminist point of view which has been called Gynocriticism. It assumes that all writing by women is marked by gender. Alicia Ostriker notes: “Writers necessarily articulate gendered experience, just as they necessarily articulate the spirit of nationality, an age, a language” (9). Feminist critics maintain that women writers are not free to renounce their gender entirely.

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Atam valves pvt.ltd. is one of the leading manufacturers of valves, cocks and Boiler Mounting in India. They are being certified with ISO 9001:2008, ISO 14001:2004 and CE Monogram and PED approved company and winner of National Award 2006 for Quality and National Award 2009 for entrpreneurship by government of India. Since 1972, their brand names ATAM and FEBI emerged as formidable names in bronze, brass, cast iron, cast steel, forged steel, SS valves and cocks conforming to various national and international standards. Some of the valued customers Of Atam valves pvt.ltd include BHEL, NTPC, Essar group, Bharat Petroleum, Melco India, Adani power Ltd, Jagatjit Industries, Maanya, IPGCL, Rail coach Factory, Forbes Marshall, Kangaroo, uttam sucrotec international etc.

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Chantal Mouffe (1943 - ) begins to defend her new political philosophy of ‘radical democracy’ in her “Radical Democracy: Modern or Postmodern?” with a meta-prediction:It is unlikely that Marxism will recover from the blows it has suffered; not only the discredit brought upon the Soviet model by the analysis of totalitarianism, but also the challenge to class reductionism posed by the emergence of new social movements. (Mouffe 261)

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मुहम्मद ईकबाल (1877-1938) तथा एम.ए. जिन्ना (1876-1948) को पाकिस्तानी ईस्लामिक राष्ट्रवाद का प्रवर्तक तथा पिता माना जाता है। ईकबाल ने ‘हिन्दू-मुस्लिम एकता’ स्थापित करते हुए ‘‘एकीकृत भारत’’ का समर्थन किया। (Brahanism) तथा मुल्लावाद (Mullaism) दोनों के नकारात्मक-संकीर्ण विचारों का विरोध किया। लेकिन सन्‌ 1909 के दौरान ईकबाल ने हिन्दू-मुस्लिम दो भिन्न धर्मों के लिए ‘‘पृथक दो राष्ट्रों’’ की सिफारिश भी की। ईकबाल ने ‘मुस्लिम राष्ट्रवाद’ (Muslim Nationalim) को एक ‘आदर्श’ (Ideal) तथा ‘क्रियात्मक छवि’ (Course of action) प्रदान करने का प्रयास किया, ताकि भारतीय मुस्लिम समाज अपनी कमजोरियों से उभरकर एक ‘‘मुस्लिम राष्ट्र’’ (Muslim Nation) के रूप में संगठित हो सके। ईकबाल का ‘मुस्लिम राष्ट्रवाद’, ‘धार्मिक सहिष्णुता’ (Religious harmony) पर आधारित ‘सकारात्मक मुस्लिम राष्ट्रवाद’(Positive Muslim Nationalism) था ना कि ‘कट्‌टर मुस्लिम राष्ट्रवाद’ (Conservative Muslim Nationalism)।

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Assam has witnessed prolonged conflict situation in most of the parts of the state since last several decades. The armed struggle of a number of insurgent groups, the counter insurgency operations launched by security forces as well as series of ethnic clashes have made the entire state a conflict zone and in attempting to understand the identity politics and resurgence of ethnicity based movements and armed insurgencies in North East India in the last several decades the use of gender perspective is essential though it has been rarely applied. As feminist historian Gerder Lerner insists, women are central to history, not peripheral as they are made out to be. According to her the system of patriarchy, the male domination over women and also males, originated with the establishment of the earliest states and ever since then the state has been the main instrument for institutionalizing gender and caste/ class based structures of exploitation and domination. This paper is an attempt to explore gender relations, which is a totally unacknowledged one in the evolution of politics of Assam in the recent decades.

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The E-Commerce market is thriving and poised for robust growth in India. There are players who made a good beginning. Their success depends on their understanding of the market and offering various types of features. This paper gives an overview of E-Commerce in India and discusses the advantages, problems and challenges in India’s E-Commerce. Also find out various factors that would essential E-commerce in India and represent the various opportunities for retailers, Wholesalers, producers and for people. In this paper we found that the Overall E-Commerce will increase exponentially in the emerging market of India.

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The E-Commerce market is thriving and poised for robust growth in Asia. There are players who made a good beginning. Their success depends on their understanding of the market and offering various types of features. This paper gives an overview of the future of E-Commerce in India and discusses the future growth segments in India’s E-Commerce. Also find out various factors that would essential for future growth of Indian E-commerce. And represent the various opportunities for retailers, Wholesalers, producers and for people. In this paper we found that the Overall E-Commerce will increase exponentially in coming years in the emerging market of India.

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For most of the 20th century and now into the 21st, the U.S. has had global interests and a global reach to match. Though its foreign policy has a phenomenal impact of various events in the world and this can be seen in the West Asia, a region of recurring instability and enormous strategic importance. Hence it has been a vital area of U.S. foreign policy since the early decades of the Cold War in which U.S. has made itself a key player by using its diplomatic, economic, and military power in support of its national interests. During the cold war it was competing with its ideological rival i.e. Soviet Union. However, this is always expected in America’s global policy of containment of Soviet Union, the West Asia petroleum reserves have always been one of the major reasons for U.S. interest. The end of the cold war left the US alone superpower as the Soviet Union disintegrated.

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The term ' Public Sector Banks' denotes the Banks which have been owned by The Government of India since their nationalization in 1969 and 1980. Which the nationalization of 14 major banks in 1969 and 6 more banks in 1980 by the Indian Government headed by the then Prime Minister Smt. Indira Gandhi to sustain the welfare policies designed by the Planning Commission of India from time to time. There nationalization banks which are known as the Public Sector Banks began to play an active and important role in the developmental activities of the Indian economy. Indian banking sector since then witnessed great structural and dimensional changes, increase in deposits and loans and advances, special support to priority sector and social banking activities.

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Existentialism is a study of human existence. It is a doctrine of action. Life is nothing until it is lived; it is a man that gives meaning to it. Existentialism is concerned with the individual search for the meaning of his/her life through free will, choice and personal responsibility in the world. It is a philosophy which asserts that we are thrown into this world in order to make our meaning of life and our own value. This research paper focuses on the reflection of “existentialism” in Ernest Hemingway’s novel The Old Man and the Sea. The concept of hero whose triumph consists of stretching his own powers to their absolute limits regardless of their physical results gives The Old man and the Sea an existential approach. It confronts us with the man who is not capable of making an ultimate effort but makes it successfully and continuously.

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Facebook is an online social networking service headquartered in Menlo Park, California. Facebook has more than one billion users and is the largest social networking sites now. Internet is the best medium for communication fast, for entertainment and for information about products. Facebook has more than one billion users and is the largest social networking site. Online advertising are affordable, can reach a specific targeted audience, easy to track, flexible payment than other medium and more informative and better to improve the brand within a short time Facebook has many options to earn money such as gifts and payments but advertising is the most dominant part of Facebook revenue generator. In 2012 Facebook earned more than 1.09b US dollars, a 36 per cent increase by last year. It was observed from the study that mostly people visiting facebook website were aware about the advertised product/s they saw on facebook. It is a challenging task to create interest in the consumers' mind about the advertised product. people felt that advertisement were interesting. Respondents liked the product after watching it's advertisement on Facebook. Most of the respondents agree that the facebook advertisements contain lot of information. it appears that people are less worried about whether the real product will be as same as the advertised product.

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The article gives peek in the life of one of the most popular and the richest begum of Awadh, Ummat-ul-zohra, chief queen of nawab Shuja-ud-daulah. She was popularly known as Bbahu Bbegam. She was the daughter of Motamn-ud-daulah nawab Mohammad Ishaq khan, a great leader of mughal court. .Her marriage was negotiated and performed by the mughal emperor Mohammad Shah. Bahu begam, though illiterate, was shrewd lady with great abilities. She had great understanding of the court politics. Her enormous wealth attracted evil intentions of the British, her son and his ministers.

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The informal sector plays an important role in economic development of developing countries by creating employment to their large population. Studies of the informal sector workers from many countries around the word, particularly in the developing countries, find that there have been a rapidly increasing number of informal sector workers. The “informal sector” is understood to imply the use of labour-intensive working methods, with most of the workforce being self-employed. According to International Labour Organization (ILO) informal sector workers in industrially developing countries are exposed to poor working environments, low safety and health standards, and environmental hazards. Such exposure impairs their health and productivity as well as the general well-being and quality of life of the informal workers and their families. But often they are not even aware of the risks they face and, if they are, they do not know how to avoid them.

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Study of tribal or rural development should not suffer from a complacent view in light of socio-economic dominance in planning. Village was accepted as the basic unit of rural life, simply because it was considered as a social entity, self-fulfilling, self-sufficient in all respects, if not entirely whole some. But Bailey, Kathleen Gough and Marian Smith, among others, noted that the village as social isolate does not exist in the sense it existed in the past. A social anthropologist who made studies and pointed out “the easy shift of the dominant castes as guardians of social and ethical code of the village to positions of control over the newly created institutions of Panchayats and Cooperatives”. These studies have helped in pointing out important directions of social dynamics in the villages, and to great extent influenced the thinking of policy makers. Rural development by its very nature has to draw upon the findings of the various social disciplines.

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हिन्दी साहित्य में आधुनिक काल का प्रारम्भ भारतेन्दु हरिश्चन्द्र से माना जाता है। भारतीय नवजागरण के अग्रदूत के रूप में प्रसिद्ध भारतेन्दु जी ने देश की गरीबी पराधीनता शासको के अमानवीय शोषण के चित्रण को अपने साहित्य का लक्ष्य बनाया साथ ही हिन्दी को राष्ट्र भाषा के रूप में प्रतिष्ठित करने की दिशा में उन्होंने अपनी प्रतिभा का उपयोग किया। भारतेन्दु बहुमुखी प्रतिभा के धनी थे। हिन्दी पत्रकारिता, नाटक और काव्य के क्षेत्र में उनका बहुमूल्य योगदान रहा। अपनी लेखनी एवं उत्कृष्ट भाषा के माध्यम से भारतेन्दु जी ने हिन्दी साहित्य को एक नयी दिशा प्रदान की एवं भाषा के क्षेत्र में उन्होंने खड़ी बोली के उस रूप को प्रतिष्ठित किया जो उर्दू से भिन्न है और हिन्दी क्षेत्र की बोलियों का रस लेकर संवर्धित हुई है।

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Over the past 60 years, the Indian party system has been transformed from a stable, one party dominant system to an increasingly fragmented, unstable, multi-party system. The development of Indian multi-party system has been shaped by the pluralism and cultural diversity of the country, the traditions of the nationalist movement, clashing ideological perspectives and more recently by the politics based on religion, cast (Mandal Commission) and markets (liberalizationand globalization).

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अरावली की चोटियों से आच्छादित एवं थार मरूस्थल की विशाल रेतीली भूमि राजस्थान में प्राचीन काल से ही पंचायती राज संस्थाओं के अस्तित्वमान होने के उल्लेख मिलते है। यद्यपि स्वतंत्रता के बाद से पंचायती राज से सम्बन्धित अनेक प्रावधान बने लेकिन संविधान के 73 वे संशोधन के प्रावधानों के परिप्रेक्ष्य में राजस्थान पंचायती राज अधिनियम, 1994 बनाया गया, जिसमें पंचायती राज संस्थाओं को संवैधानिक दर्जा दिया गया। इस अधिनियम ने पंचायती राज की दशा व दिशा दोनों ही बदल दी और तब से ही पंचायती राज नवीन परिवर्तनों के साथ विकसित होता जा रहा है।

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India’s Foreign Policy has been fabricated by many ideals and realistic thoughts by eminent personalities of India but the influence of Mahatma Gandhi’s philosophy was most significant. The essential elements of Gandhi’s philosophy were the concepts of non-violence, the importance of the moral dimension in the conduct of men as well as nations, and satyagraha or the struggle for truth, compassion and justice. All these principles continue to influence India’s foreign policy even today. India’s foreign policy has its roots in its freedom struggle that was largely shaped by Gandhi’s values. The defining characteristics of India’s foreign policy in the first few decades after India’s independence were unquestionably inspired by Mahatma Gandhi likewise, India’s Foreign Policy followed the path of Non-alignment or the right to follow an independent foreign policy, Moral, diplomatic and economic support for the struggle against colonialism, racialism and apartheid, Non-violence and the quest for nuclear disarmament; and India’s role as an international peacemaker India’s position on world issues was informed by a rare moral clarity and courage which won India many admirers. Indeed, global perceptions of India’s Foreign policy were significantly shaped by Gandhi’s message.

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ेवश्व प्रेसद्ध उन्यिासकार यी Šव िआम्र्ह का जन्म सन् 1939 में घाना क िताकारिाडी में हुआ था । उन्होंन िउच्च ेशक्षा हावर्ड ेवश्वेवद्याbय स िप्राप्त की । ‘फ्रगिमन्टिस,’ ‘व्हाय आर वी सा िब्bसिडि?’, ‘धी व्हीbर्स’ ओद उनकर् िहुचेर्चत उन्यिास है ।

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Since last 5 years, we are habitual of listening the terms as FDI or FIIs in economic terms, but, it has been hardly noticed that, what is the impact of FIIs over the Indian capital market and what would be the DIIs doing. But after few years, various economic analysts brought certain facts about the differences of operation between FIIs and DIIs. In fact, the equal participation of FIIs and DIIs require for smooth flow of any capital market, but, still, there is segmented participation or un-even participation has been noticed in Indian capital market. This study is about to measure and identify the difference of participation of DIIs and FIIs.

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A stock market or equity market is the aggregation of buyers and sellers (a loose network of economic transactions, not a physical facility or discrete entity) of stocks (also called shares); these may include securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. It is a place where shares of pubic listed companies are traded. The primary market is where companies float shares to the general public in an initial public offering (IPO) to raise capital. Once new securities have been sold in the primary market, they are traded in the secondary market—where one investor buys shares from another investor at the prevailing market price or at whatever price both the buyer and seller agree upon. The secondary market or the stock exchanges are regulated by the regulatory authority. In India, the secondary and primary markets are governed by the Security and Exchange Board of India (SEBI).

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Geography is the study of physical, human, cultural and environmental phenomena in space and time. Human being always wants to know about the occurrence, distribution, spatial patterns, variations and spatial arrangement of various elements found over the earth surface. Geography, as a subject gives answer to the nature of phenomena, their occurrence, distribution and variations in spatial-temporal context. Space and time are integral features of Geography. Geography is a wide field and offer career opportunities in many areas. Many institutes offer courses in Geography at under graduate, post graduate and doctoral level. Its roots are very deep. Eratosthenes, (about 276- 194 B.C.), Greek geographer first made accurate estimate of the earth circumference. Strabo, Immanuel Kant, Paul Vidal de la Blache, L. Dudley Stamp, William Morris Davis, Carl Ritter, Hartshorne, Friedrich Schaefer are pioneer geographers.

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Immediately prior to the war's outbreak in 1914, Central Europe was dominated by two powerful states: Germany to the north and its weaker cousin, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, to the South. The two countries formed the core of the Central Powers, also known as the Quadruple Alliance because they were joined after war began by Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire (modern Turkey). The other major pre-war alliance was the Triple Entente, a pact between Russia, Great Britain, and France (called the Allied Powers during the war). These alliances set the stage for a massive war: any dispute between two members of these blocs could pull in all of the others, as the treaties committed these states to defending their allies. And that's exactly what happened.

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Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur, established the Mughal rule in 1526 A.D. in India by defeating the Lodi rulers, was a prolific writer. He primarily wrote in his mother tongue Turkish and also in Persian. He showed unprecedented interest in patronizing Persian literary culture during his reign. Mughal India has been particularly noted for its extraordinary achievement in poetry and wide range of prose writings in Persian. In terms of sheer profusion and variety of themes, this literary output probably exceeded that produced under every other Mughal dynasty. The Mughals were Chaghatai Turks by origin, and we know that, unlike them. Turkic rulers outside Iran – such as the Ottomans based in Asia Minor and the Uzbeks in Central Asia – were not quite so enthusiastic about Persian.

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Existing life-cycles for the development of traditional information systems are shown to be inadequate for addressing expert system requirements. A life cycle for expert systems is constructed, outlining the tasks and activities to be performed at each stage of system development. The life cycle highlights the role of alternative development paradigms and the importance of social and organizational characteristics in system transfer to users. The operationalization of the ltfe­ cycle is illustrated through a case study, describing the their functionality, include project definition, require­ ments determination, logical design, physical design. testing and implementation activities’.2 The life-cycle approach rests on one fundamental assumption—that system requirements are well- defined and temporally static, at least in the short term3. This assumption has proved to be incompatible with the computing trends witnessed in the 1980s. As the usage of information technology permeated to more decision-oriented applications, an alternative development strategy called prototyping was proposed. development process and major architectural compo­ Prototyping, which prescribes iteration as nents of an expert system that configures air- conditioning units. Several important issues encoun­ tered in transferring the system from test to production mode and in system evaluation are highlighted. Such a life-cycle approach can enhance project management for expert systems.

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Media management aims to build a bridge between the general management theory and the specificities of the media industry; the field is far from being clearly defined or cohesive. Strategic management that has emerged in the media management field is based on the ecological niche theory from the biological sciences. Organizational culture in media industry shapes decisions, determines priorities,

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The center of this study was to decide the effect of training and advancement on the employees' execution and viability at District Five of Moradabad, India. In this study we utilized cross sectional institutional based quantitative examination strategy. Data were gathered utilizing Likert's scale instrument from 100 employees in the wake of selecting members utilizing systematic arbitrary testing method. Ninety-four complete surveys with a reaction rate of 94% were considered amid analysis. Training and advancement had emphatically corresponded and guaranteed measurably critical association with employee execution and adequacy. It is recompatched that District Five Administration Offices should keep up giving employee training and advancement exercises and guarantee the investment of employees in arranging, need or skill shortage ID and assessment of training and improvement programs.

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The unprecedented expansion of technical education sector in India in recent years has brought many questions about the quality of education imparted. A technical education is relevant for the graduate if it meets the needs of the industry. A core set of such needs must be identified and to implement this concept in technical institutions, a number of studies were being carried out; models and strategies have been developed based on the principles of Total Quality Management. Total Quality Management (TQM) is a proven concept which is practiced in industry to establish standards to ensure the quality of products and services reach the end user. TQM is continuous improvement in quality. TQM should be led by the management and followed by entire institution to create learning ability, immovability and sustainability campuses.

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स्वतन्त्रता से लेकर आज तक भारत के प्रति पाकिस्तान का दृष्टिकोण सदैव संदेहात्मक रहा है। भारत पाकिस्तान सम्बन्ध की कहानी दो पडोसी राष्ट्ोे की विभिन्न धार्मिक समाजिक एवं आर्थिक विचार धाराओं तथा अन्तराष्टी्य दृष्टिकोण एवं राष्ट्ीय हितो के साथ जुड़ी है इन्ही मतभेदो के कारण दोनांे के मध्य कटु सम्बन्ध आज तक बरकरार है। भारतीय उपमहाद्वीप के इन दोनों राष्टो के मध्य व्याप्त तनाव का लाभ बड़ी शक्तियांे ने सदैव से उठाया है क्यांेकि उनको अपने हथियारो की बिक्री के लिये एक बड़ा बाजार मिलता रहा है। पाकिस्तान सदैव से भारत विरोधी हौवा खड़ा करके चीन से हथियार और अमेरिका से सैनिक एवं आर्थिक सहायता से प्राप्त धनराशि से ही अपनी राष्ट्ीय अर्थव्यवस्था का संचालन करना उसकी मजबूरी एवं नियति बन चुकी है। इसी कारण वहाॅ के शासक सदैव से भारत विरोधी दृष्टिकोण अपनाते रहे है। भारत को शिकस्त देना अब पाकिस्तन की राजनीति विदेशनीति तथा कूटनीति का एक आवश्यक उद्देश्य बन चुका है।

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शिक्षा का उद्देश्य संस्कृति व सभ्यता के संरक्षण तथा प्रसार के साथ ही समाज की भावी पीढ़ी में अन्तःज्ञान और कौशल का विकास करना भी है। नैतिक मूल्यों का विकास हर व्यक्ति विशेष में होना जरूरी है जहां तक अध्यापक की बात है उसके लिए तो यह अति आवश्यक है बिना मूल्यों के हम जीवन की दिशा में आगे नही बढ़ सकते। फैजाबाद जनपद के शिक्षा मित्र व विशिष्ट बी.टी.सी. प्रशिणार्थियों का शिक्षण के प्रति मूल्यों का अध्ययन किया है।

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महात्मा गांधी के अनुसार ‘‘भारत गांवों में निवास करता है, गांव ही हमारी प्राचीन सभ्यता के स्त्रोत रहे है।’’ देश में स्वतंत्रता प्राप्ती के बाद से ही सामाजिक न्याय के साथ तीव्र आर्थिक विकास की महत्वाकांशी अभिलाषा के साथ ग्रामीण विकास और कल्याण की अनेक योजनाएँ और कार्यक्रमों को संचालिक किया जा रहा है।

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Probiotics are the live microbial foods that have been shown to have several health benefits when administered in adequate amounts on the host. Recently, there is a tremendous boost in the global market of probiotic products and are becoming a part of consumer’s diet searching for alternative and “natural” means to promote intestinal health. However, many of the products currently available in the market do not undergo rigorous regulatory and compliance procedures, adequate labelling and health claims backed by authentic research. These are freely available in stores and are consumed without the intervention of medical experts. Knowledge in probiotic continues to expand on daily basis. There is a blindfolded trend in the usage of probiotics.In this review, probiotics and their impact on health are presented.

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