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Volume -4 Issue - 3
Month [Year] -- [2013]
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   No of Download : 9    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Paper has been removed in June 2017 due to Violation of copy right Policy

   No of Download : 6    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Cooperative learning is an approach to organizing classroom activities into academic and social learning experiences. It differs from group work, and it has been described as "structuring positive interdependence. Students must work in groups to complete tasks collectively toward academic goals. Unlike individual learning, which can be competitive in nature, students learning cooperatively capitalize on one another’s resources and skills Furthermore, the teacher's role changes from giving information to facilitating students' learning.Everyone succeeds when the group succeeds. cooperative learning tasks as intellectually demanding, creative, open-ended, and involve higher order thinking tasks. Five essential elements are identified for the successful incorporation of cooperative learning in the classroom Cooperative Learning Techniques

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   No of Download : 260    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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हिमांशु जोशी हिंदी के लब्ध-प्रतिशिठत साहित्यकार हैं। वैंसे वे उपन्यासकार, कहानीकार, रूपककार एवं कवि भी हैं, किन्तु उपन्यास एवं कहानी के क्षेत्र में उन्हें पर्याप्त सफलता एवं ख्याति मिली है। सामन्यत: किसी भी साहित्यकार एवं कलाकार के व्यकितत्व को जानने के लिए हमें तीन बातों का ध्यान रखना पड़ेगा - युग-चेतना, मन के संस्कार और जीवन की परिसिथतियां। इन्हीं तीन उपादानों से साहित्यकार का व्यकितत्व संवरता है। एक और प्रभाव उनके व्यकितत्व पर-साहितियक परंपराओं का भी पड़ता है।

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   No of Download : 23    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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The development dynamics of India is anything but balanced. The state of Bihar perhaps is an overwhelming statement of this prevailing scenario. The phenomenal rate of unequal economic growth of Begusarai district in contrast to the Patna district reckons us to sit up and take notice of whether the motto of inclusive growth is mere rhetoric. Development is a multi dimensional phenomenon. The process of development involves both economic and structural (social & political) change, at not only macro level but also concurrent change in the economic activities over different regions, including districts. The aim of the present paper is to determine the contrasts in the dynamics of development in Patna and Begusarai districts.

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   No of Download : 148    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Dairying been recognized as an instrumental to bring about socio – economic transformation to strengthen India’s rural economy. The white revolution which was brought by Dr V. Kurien in the early sixties has completely changed the scenario of dairy industry. This model came to known as ‘Anand Pattern’. The efficiency of the Model was worth replication. The milk and milk products market in Kerala is mainly controlled by the Kerala Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation Limited (MILMA) and other small dairies. The changing food habits and consumer preference of Keralites have opened up new opportunities for marketing of various milk products in the state. MILMA is the leading product in dairy sector in Kerala. They have a wide range of products. Dealers’ network is also extensive. Lately they has been entry of a few small players like Govardhan, Nambeesan and newer entrants like Milky Mist, Janatha Milk and Wyanad Milk have also entered the market. In this scenario it is essential to know the awareness of MILMA and its competitor’s products as well as the satisfaction details, both from the customers as well as from the dealers which will be beneficial to MILMA for framing strategies to face the competition.

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   No of Download : 22    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Water politics is a term that has been used to refer inter and intra-state relations, affected by the availability of water and water resources. The substitute term for Water Politics is also called; the Hydro politics around the world .The availability of drinking water is shrinking day by day. The phenomena are not only damaging the economy and eco system of the developing world but states are also affecting with it. Increasing scarcity of water has created a desire among the states to control the water resources which has become a breeding conflict. The consequences of strained bilateral relations are far reaching for both India and Bangladesh. India is witnessing rising turmoil all around its border and therefore a stable, moderate Bangladesh as a partner is in its long-term interest. Constructive Indo- Bangladesh ties could be a major stabilizing factor for the South Asian region as a whole.

   No of Download : 26    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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राजनीतिक दल भारतीय जनतंत्र के अनिवार्य अंग हैं और सूचना का अधिकार समकालीन समय में भारत की जनता का अस्त्र है। राजनीतिक दलों और पारदर्शिता के अधिकार कानून का रिश्ता बहुत विशेष है। कुछ वर्ष पहले राजनीतिक दलों ने सूचना के अधिकार अधिनियम को संसद के दोनों सदनों से पारित करवाकर खुलेपन के नए दौर की शुरुआत करते हुए यह अधिकार जनता को गोपनीयता के विरुद्ध हथियार के रूप में प्रदान किया था। उस दौरान शायद ही किसी राजनीतिक दल ने यह सोचा होगा की एक दिन यही सूचना का अधिकार उनको भी सूचना देने के लिए बाध्य करेगा अर्थात उनके ऊपर भी लागू होगा। कुछ समय पहले केंद्रीय सूचना आयोग द्वारा राजनीतिक दलों को सूचना अधिकार के अधीन लाने वाला आदेश राजनीतिक दलों के लिए परेशानी का सबब बनकर उभरा है। इस महत्वपूर्ण फैसले के बाद सभी प्रमुख राजनीतिक दलों में अजीब तरह की बेचैनी भी है और इस आदेश को निरस्त करवाने की स्वार्थपूर्ण तत्परता भी। शायद यही वजह है की लगभग हर अहम् विषय पर एक.दूसरे का खुलकर विरोध करने वाले मुख्य राजनीतिक दल एक सुर में बोल रहे हैं। इस प्रकार केंद्रीय सूचना आयोग के आदेश के फलस्वरूप उपजे हालात में प्रमुख राजनीतिक दल और सूचना का अधिकार अधिनियम एक.दूसरे के खिलाफ खड़े नजर आ रहे हैं

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   No of Download : 96    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Women Entrepreneurs may be defined as the women or a group of women who initiate, organize and operate a business enterprise. Government of India has defined women entrepreneurs as an enterprise owned and controlled by a women having a minimum financial interest of 51% of the capital and giving at least 51% of employment generated in the enterprise to women. “Entrepreneurship offers tremendous opportunities for women across the world by opening doors to greater self-sufficiency, self-esteem, education, and growth- not only for the women themselves, but also for their families and their employees. And women are changing the face of business ownership internationally; between one-quarter and one-third of the world’s businesses are owned by women. As their numbers grow and as their businesses prosper, they will change the way the world does business.” Julie R. Weeks, Director of Research National Foundation for Women Business Owners

   No of Download : 9    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Social justice and its status in India were critically defined in the “Damini’s Case” of the capital of the world’s largest democracy. However, equality, liberty and justice are the three iron pillars of any democratic country, but in India there is such an administrative system where justice delayed. Justice delayed, means justice denied. When the people of India were crying for justice for “Damini” on the roads of India, then among the large administrative system and government, there was not a single official, speaking even a single word for the so called daughter of India: “Damini.” Now this case is buried in the papers. This is the real and clear picture of social justice in India followed by a long chain of the rape cases even with the five years old babies

   No of Download : 28    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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The paper titled, Participatory Planning and Governance: The Case of Urban and Rural West Bengal is a case study based research. West Bengal stands in sharp contrast compared to other Indian states in developing the Panchayati Raj system.(Ghatak and Ghatak, 2002).This paper looks into two cases of rural West Bengal, one following the conventional model of preparing the development plan of an area while the other using the much acclaimed tools of participation. With this rich legacy of participation in West Bengal, the ‘spaces’ within which these participatory practices takes place have undergone changes as new actors have replaced the old. This paper attempts to explore the nature and issues which control the ‘spaces’ within which participatory planning occurs, in West Bengal at the Panchayat level. It aims in drawing a comparative analysis and in the process identify the factors responsible for the success of one and the failure of the other in addressing the ideals of participation.

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   No of Download : 32    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Women Empowerment is most vital system to strengthen the future of women in India. It is a systematic approach which needs to be developed more seriously in India. The Constitution of India grants equality to women in various fields of life. Yet a large number of women are either ill equipped or not in a position to propel themselves out of their traditionally, unsatisfactory socio-economic condition. Empowerment would not hold any meaning unless they are made strong, alert and aware of their equal status in the society. The Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have put in intervention strategies in various ways and to various ends – the greatest of which is to empower the women and give them a voice and improve their lives.

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   No of Download : 12    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Given its prevalence, corruption contributes no positive benefits to economic development, political institutions and social value. Corruption comes in innumerable shapes, forms and sizes. David H. Bayley, in his analysis on the effects of corruption in developing nations, identifies two major effects of corruption as (a) the direct or unmediated effects and (b) the indirect or meditated effects.57 Peter Eighers (Chairman, Transparency International) report in 2004 that “corruption leaves ordinary people without essential services, such as life-serving medicine, and deprives them of access to sanitation and housing. In short corruption costs lives.

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   No of Download : 77    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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The modern era is called as an era of consumerism. Consumer is a god for seller so it is assumed that it is the full responsibility of seller to satisfy consumer but the relation of consumers and sellers sometimes find good and sometimes bad. For the welfare of consumers, government has made some provisions such as Consumer protection Act, Consumer Forum and also some advertisement are made such as ‘Jago Grahak Jago’. We always talk about the consumer’s right but what about the other area on which we rarely focus i.e. consumers’ negligence. In this paper, after the brief introduction of basic terms and government role for consumers’ protection in different areas, we try to focus on the other side of the coin that means always seller is not responsible for the problems consumer face, sometimes consumers are also responsible for the counterfeiting happened with him. This is very much obvious to understand that sellers and agents can cheat the consumers for profit by manipulating the facts but what about the consumers’ negligence? Why they got cheated? For this purpose we have adopted case study method.

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   No of Download : 19    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Improving company performance is something of interest to all small business leaders. Small business leaders have many tools at their disposal — from finance to marketing to customer service — that could potentially improve the performance of their company. Among these tools is the way that small business leaders manage their people. As has been mentioned in previous reports, research has shown that people management does indeed impact company performance, even at the financial level. Studies show increases in value per employee of up to $40,000 and survival rates for IPO firms as much as 20% higher for companies that effectively manage their human resources.

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   No of Download : 30    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Rural India is emerging as a market with high potential .It comprises 60 percent of total population. Young population, rising income and low penetration of many consumer durables attract the companies towards rural market. Companies can initiate in sustainable rural development with health & hygiene and infrastructure development and creating income-generating opportunities for the rural population. Such initiatives are successful and sustainable when linked with the company’s core business and is mutually beneficial to both the population for whom the programme is intended and for the company. The explosion in rural consumption grows competition for scarce resources. It demands that companies should work on public-private partnerships to address these challenges. This will be helpful in finding innovative solutions and build on the opportunities, this opportunity may lead to the sustainable rural development.

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   No of Download : 16    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Corporate Governance is the system by which business corporations are directed and controlled . the Corporate Governance structure specified the distribution of rights and responsibilities among different participants in the corporation such as members, boards, shareholders and stakeholders, and spellsout the rules and procedures or making decisions on corporate affairs. By doing this, it also provides the structure through which the company objectives are set,and the means of attaining those objectives and monitoring performance.A company commited to good governance has well defined and protected shareholders rights , a solid control environment, high level transparency , discloser and an empowered board . The interests of the company and those of all shareholders are aligned.

   No of Download : 17    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Every person has his own definition of stress. Stress is an unavoidable consequence of modern living. Stress is a condition of strain that has a direct bearing of emotions, thought process and physical condition of a person. Taber’s cyclopedia medical dictionary defines stress as” the result produced when a structure, system or organism is acted upon by forces that disrupt equilibrium or produce strain”. "Stress is a noteworthy problem among teachers in the nation's schools. Research has shown that teacher stress is consistently related with a number of variables. Although stress always involves a transaction between the individuals and their environments (Cox,1978). Travers & Cooper (1997)found that teachers named lack of government support, lack of information about changes, constant change and the demands of the National Curriculum as among their greatest sources of stress.

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   No of Download : 22    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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भूमि और पूंजी की सत्ता पर काबिज पुरुषों ने जैसा चाहा वैसा ही आध्ी दुनिया का सच अभिव्यक्त किया गया है। उसकी मानवीय असिमता को नकारने के लिए ध्र्म की जंजीरों को मजबूत किया गया है। साथ ही मानसिक विकास को अवरु( रखने के लिए शिक्षा के दरवाजे बन्द रखे गये। समाज की पवित्राता और शुचिता की सारी परिभाषाएँ नारी देह से प्रारम्भ होकर नारी देह पर ही समाप्त होती रहीं। वास्तव में स्त्राी-दमन के जितने भी हथियार हो सकते थे उनको सान पर चढ़ाकर हर वक्त उनकी धर को पैना रखा गया। हिन्दी के क्रानितकारी कवि कबीर ने भी नारी के प्रति परम्परागत सोच और मर्दवादी मानसिकता को जाहिर किया, वे लिखते हैं

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   No of Download : 15    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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भारत स्वतंत्रता-पूर्व दासता, रूढि़याें एवं अंधिविष्वासों की बेडि़यों में जकड़ा हुआ था। स्वतंत्रता-प्रापित के पश्चात भी इन परिसिथतियाें में कोर्इ विषेष अंतर नहीं आया, पुरूष-प्रधान समाज में नारी की सिथति दयनीय एवं शोचनीय बनी हुर्इ थी। भारतीय मनीषियाें का यह उदघोष-'यत्र नार्यस्तु पूज्यन्ते रमन्ते तत्र देवता

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   No of Download : 46    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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After the awarding of death sentence to a convict some time is taken in actually implementing the sentence. These are some of the administrative reasons due to which after passing the judgment of death sentence, the same is not implemented. The convict persons also file Mercy Petitions before the President of India. Sometime delay is caused in deciding the Mercy Petition. In several cases then the Writ Petitions are filed before the Hon’ble Supreme Court that the delay has been caused in deciding the Mercy Petition. Therefore, the prayer is made that the death sentence awarded to the convict be converted into life imprisonment.

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   No of Download : 14    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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The quantitative and qualitative findings of the study have been reported in discussion. However, some of its implications can be put together to consider its importance. The implications are presented on the basis of findings of the study. Implications for the Teachers (Each child is unique, so it takes special care to build secure relationship with the society. Teachers are the important person that plays an important role in all round development of the child. He should not differentiate between boys and girls as both are equally well adjusted according to the conclusion of the study. Teacher should observe each child carefully over time. He should try to learn his or her unique "signs" of behaviour. Share or discuss your observations with co-workers and parents about how each child is feeling about the child's relationship with others.) Implications for the Parents (Parents should pay special attention to provide healthy atmosphere at home. Parents should spend some "special time" with each child, each day. "Special time" can be for a conversation, play or a poem. Parents should start introducing routines & good habits to their children's at an early age. Parents should provide equal opportunity to girls and try to understand their problem. The best way to make children good is to make them happy. At home, children's should be provided with varied type of experiences that should stimulate life and widen range of companionship.)

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   No of Download : 4    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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संगीत से असीम आनंद व्यापार और शांति की अनुभूति होती है। अच्छा और मधुर संगीत न केवल मन को सुकून देता है, न केवल जीवन को उत्साहित करता है बलिक एक औषधि का काम करता है । संगीत के मनमोहक प्रभाव के दृषिटगत आज की वैज्ञानिक इस पर शोध कर रहे है । वास्तव में संगीत मनोरंजन के साथ-साथ संजीवनी बूटी भी है । देश-विदेश में संगीत के माध्यम से लोगों का सफल इलाज किया जा रहा है ।

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   No of Download : 16    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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By the beginning of first millennium, Buddhism has been firmly established in the area of Thailand, Burma, Java and Cambodia. Buddhism develops art and architectures as visual aids for propagation of the religious ideas in South-east Asia. Buddhist stylistic arts have given the great impacts on the religious and secular life of the people in those related areas for more than two millenniums and thus Buddhism had created a great current of art in south-east Asia. Under this artistic trend, many valuable art works created and gave rise to emerge a special social phenomenon. Thus, the paper focuses on the influence and impact of Indian Buddhist art on south-east Asian art and the dimensions of Buddhist art in south-east Asian culture. This paper also compares the Buddhist art in the homeland of Buddhism with those in other Buddhist countries in south-east Asia and examines the dissemination of Buddhism through art and Architecture.

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Education is the most important level for social, economic and political transformation. A well-educated population, equipped with the relevant knowledge, attitudes and skills is essential for economic and social inclusion. Education strengthens democracy by imparting citizens with the tools needed for full participation in the governance process. It also acts as an integrative force in society, imparting values that foster social cohesion and national identity.

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There are very few countries in the world where English is taught on such a massive scale as in India. Unfortunately, it is equally true that in very few countries does the profession suffer from a greater sense of frustration and helplessness than here. When we think of the status of English in the context of states like Haryana, Punjab, U.P., H.P. etc., a grim picture floats before our eyes. Our students share a nightmarish experience in the learning of English language which includes the learning of basic grammar, textual literature and spoken English.

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   No of Download : 26    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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It is now a more or less known fact that Feminism, both as a critical theory as well as a 'strategy' that 'deconstructs' the inferences of patriarchal society and assumptions has had its stages--- there have been "waves" of Feminist analyses that have interpreted and valued its working principles along certain well-defined lines. From Simone de Beauvior's famous remark that " one is not born, but rather becomes a woman", Feminist analyses has seen a wide array of things that have been dealt with; thus we had different phases or manifestations of Feminist critical theory. However, throughout its long and rather chequered history, Feminist analysis has created certain "binary oppositions" viz. man/woman, logocentric/phallogocentric, and the like. Modern "postfeminists" working within the feminist critical theory say, Nadine Strossen , object to this rigid conceptualization, because they strongly feel that Feminism has more or less succeeded in its avowed aims, so why this tacit hierarchies any more. Moreover, they tend to take a more dynamic approach toward the "woman question", and feel that Feminism has not been successful if it has not yet established an equality between the sexes. They even feel that the very term "Feminism" is misleading, as there is nothing like that now, and that women often are responsible for their own subjugation.

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   No of Download : 7    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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India is emerging as one of the world’s budding super-economies and at the same time its development is pulled back by poverty and illiteracy, the vicious cycle of which is very hard to break. Education can help to break this vicious cycle to a greater extent. But in India about 8.1 million children are out of formal education and they receive a single meal in a day. About 42 percent of the world's underweight children under age 5 are in India . According to Jawaharlal Nehru “Today’s children are tomorrow’s citizen”. A country’s development depends upon the sound physical and mental growth of children. Without nutrition it is impossible to maintain a good health. Nutrition and physical absorption of food have several dimensions and depend upon a host of factors such as quality water, sanitation, health and quality of food itself.

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महात्मा गांधी के अनुसार भारत ग्रामों का देश है । भारत के ग्रामों में मुख्य व्यवसाय कृषि है। कृषि राष्ट्रीय उत्पादन का 40 प्रतिशत भाग प्रदान करती है एवं इसमें देश की 60 प्रतिशत कार्यकारी जनसंख्या लगी है। इससे देश का 35 प्रतिशत निर्यात निर्मित होता है। साथ ही कृषि से ही अकृषि क्षेत्रों के विभिन्न सामानों की आपूर्ति होती है। मत्स्यपाल, दुग्ध-व्यवसाय आदि कार्य भी समिमलित व संलग्न है। अनेक समस्याएं कृषि उत्पादन और कृषि विकास से जुडी हुर्इ हैं। बहुचर्चित हरित क्रांति का प्रभाव घटता जा रहा है । न केवल इसके अन्तर्गत प्रति हेक्टेयर उत्पादन घट रहा है, कृषि निवेशों का मूल्य, लागत बढ़ रही है वरन घटते जैव विविधता से इससे पर्यावरण अवनमन का संकट गहराता जा रहा है। अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय धान शोध संस्थान (प्त्त्प्) से प्रकाशित एक लेख के अनुसार धान की वे प्रजापतियाँ जो 1966 में प्रति हेक्टेयर 10 टन उत्पादन देती थीं आज प्रति हेक्टेयर 7 टन से भी कम उत्पादन दे रहीं हैं। कृषि विकास से जुड़ी इन समस्याओं के निराकरण तथा उत्पादन की मात्रा को बढ़ाये रखने के लिए कृषि वैज्ञानिकों की नयी रूझान जैवप्रौधौगिकी की शोधों की ओर है।

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The article vividly portrays the history of the problems and sufferings of the Blacks in America. The Blacks or the Afro-Americans were brought from their native land of Africa to America as slaves by the Europeans. They were treated in a dastardly manner by their masters. The Afro-Americans bitterly say that their manhood and womanhood were taken away by the Whites in exchange for the Bible. Their psyche was so much hurt that they suspected the Whites when they offered a hand shake towards integration. They wished to remain a separate ethnic entity like the Jews or the Chinese. They demanded to be recognized as a separate group with the rights to live with dignity and self-respect. Till the 18th century they had only oral literature. They started their written literature only in the second half of the 18th century. Poets like Phyllis Wheatley and dramatists like Langston Hughes and Lorraine Hansberry reflected their sentiments and emotions through their writings.

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भारतीय संस्कृति धर्मप्रधान है। सदैव से धर्म भारतीय संस्कृति का प्राण रहा है। धर्म शब्द 'धृ धातु से बना है। जिसका अर्थ है धारण करना। जो समस्त बृह्रााण्ड को धारण करे वही धर्म है। धर्म की मीमांसा करते हुए महाभारतकार का मानना है कि जो धारण करने की योग्यता रखता है, वही धर्म है। धर्म प्रजा को धारण करता है- धारणाद धनामत्याहुधर्मेण विधृता प्रजा :। य: स्याद धारण संयुक्त: स धर्म इति निश्चय :।।1

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Business is the propensity of mind to take the risk with confidence to achieve a pre-determined or industrial objective.. So it is the function of creating something new, organizing and coordinating it and undertaking risk and handling economic uncertainty with confidence, entrepreneurs organizes the business by using various traits and tactics like leadership, innovation, decision making and managerial caliber so as to run their business profitably. Women entrepreneurship refer to a group of women who initiate organize and run their business enterprises by taking risks and handle various types of economic uncertainties. Now women are seen not only as teachers in schools or colleges but have proven themselves in military, defense pharmaceuticals, science, aeronautics and even in space exploration.

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“Tribhirguna-mayairbhavairebhihsarvamidamjagat”- Gita7.18. The entire world is under the influence of the three gunas. The world we see and the people we observe are a combination of three gunas viz, Satva, Rajas and Tamas in different combinations and proportions. The predominance of any one guna decides the personality of the individual. Ayurveda is a science that predominantly imbibes the concept of gunas and prakriti in its dealing with the humanity. Prakruti is an important concept of Ayurveda & plays a very important role in the designing lifestyle of a person for maintenance of health. At the time of birth, predominance of trigunas, panchamahabhutas (earth, water, fire, air and the sky) & tridoshas (vata, kapha and pitta) decide the prakruti or constitution of every individual.

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Dharma is the foundation for the welfare of humanity; it is the truth that is stable for all time. When dharma fails to transmute human life, the world is afflicted by agony and fear, tormented by stormy revolutions. When the effulgence of dharma fails to illumine human relationships, humanity is shrouded in the night of sorrow. Dharma cannot be restricted to any particular society or nation, for it is closely bound with the fortunes of the entire living world. It is a flame of light that can never be extinguished. It is untrammelled in its beneficent action. Krishna taught the Gita to Arjuna, but He intended it for the whole of humanity. Arjuna was just an excuse. That very Gita is today correcting all mankind. It is not for any particular caste, religion or nation; it is the very breath for humans everywhere. Dharma expresses itself in a variety of forms. Dharma is the moral path; the moral path is the light; the light is bliss (ananda). Dharma is characterized byholiness, peace, truth, and fortitude. Dharma is yoga, union, merger; it is truth (sathya). Its attributes are justice, sense control, sense of honour, love, dignity, goodness, meditation, sympathy, nonviolence; such is the dharma that persists through the ages.

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Each one of us has our own personality. Personality is total characteristics of a person that influences a person’s behavior and mental process and makes him different or identifiable from other people. It involves all our feelings, thought and attitudes as well as habits. It also includes the things that we want to do, our abilities and talents, our weaknesses and our likes and dislikes. Personality development is the development of the original pattern of behavior attitudes that makes a person distinctive. In fact, there are number of factors which determine a person’s personality. Thos includes environment and genetics. Our personality is the product of the interaction of these two factors heredity and environment.

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The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Act 2009(RTE ACT) came into effect on 1 April, 2010. It is a wide act encompassing several areas related to school, admission procedures, infrastructure, teaching, curriculum, evaluation, school management and private schools. However, there are some other factors too which have an equal and direct effect on the quality implementation of RTE Act. Unfortunately, these factors are always neglected leading to the current status of Indian education. This present paper focuses on one such factor i.e. the status of Literacy Pedagogy in teacher training courses. The teachers who are one of the basic stakeholders in school system hold a great responsibility for the success of RTE. The training with which a teacher enters into the system ensures how well they will be able to deal with the issues in field. Any limitation in such courses is bound to affect the quality of education.

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Shakespeare's Measure for Measure has risen to an extraordinary diversity of critical opinion and interpretation. Various schools of criticism, whether they be theistic or secular, have responded to the play in their own ways. If some critics have seen the work as an "arch-problem" and "difficult" play, there are some other critics also who have seen the play as a "funny" work. If critics like Eileen Mackay have found the play "unsatisfactory" and "un-Shakespearean" , critics like John Masefield have gone to the extent of identifying the play as "one of the greatest works of the greatest English mind.

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In central India another early centre of agricultural pastoral communities lay in the Vindhyan Fringes in Southern Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, i.e., the area bound by the Ganges in the north and River son in the south, where over 40 Neolithic sites have been identified in the course of explorations and excavations in the Belan, Adwa, son, Rihand, Ganga, Lapari and Paisuni rivers. Among the most important sites, mention may be made of Koldihwa and Mahagara in the Belan valley (Distt. Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh), sinduria in the Mirzapur Distt., and Kunjun in the sidhi Distt. Of Madhya Pradesh.

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प्रभाकर जी के 'आवारा मसीहा नामक जीवनी में अन्तरंग बहिरंग चरित्र-चित्रण, चरित्र-चित्रण की विधियों और चरित्र-चित्रण सम्बन्धी आवश्यक विशेषताओं व गुणों की दृषिट से लेखक के चरित्र-चित्रण कौशल की समीक्षा करने के पश्चात अन्त में उनकी चरित्र-चित्रण सम्बन्धी विशेषताओं का मूल्याकंन करना भी अपेक्षित है, क्योंकि बिना मूल्यांकन के चरित्र-चित्रण का सम्पूर्ण पर्यवेक्षण करना दुष्कर है।

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When you research international or foreign law, you will look for and use different types of information: laws, cases, and regulations from national bodies; practice guides or overviews of legal topics; scholarly discussions of the law; news stories; policy studies.

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The effect of various cooking methods on the antioxidant activity of commonly consumed pulses was studied. Raw and processed pulses were analyzed for their antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. The antioxidant activity of the raw pulses ranged from 64.1to 95.3 % inhibition, with the highest value in red kidney beans and lowest in moth beans. Maximum retention of antioxidant activity was observed in microwave cooked pulses with mean retention of 89.3% whereas minimum retention was observed in germinated pulses with mean retention of 74.4%. Total phenolic content of the raw pulses varied from 52 to 313 mg/100g whereas the corresponding values in cooked pulses ranged from 45 to 263mg/100g. The reduction of total phenolic content might be due to the differences on distribution and content of phenolic compounds in the seed coat and cotyledon between tested seeds. The study recommended that microwave cooking was the suitable method for retaining maximum AOA in the pulses followed by pressure cooking. Key words: Pulses, cooking methods, DPPH, antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, proximate composition.

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Henry Adams A teacher is a community leader. A classroom is a place wherein, moulding and shaping of pupils personality takes place to prepare the leaders in the society playing a role of better citizens in work situations. The class-room offers the pupils a physical, psychological and social framework capable of promoting his all round development. This way, a classroom is an organizational group of pupils pursuing and receiving instruction from the teachers. Therefore, classroom becomes an integral part of the society and it is truly said that, “classroom is sub-system of a social system”. The classroom is made group dynamic by the interaction process which is like a chain or wheel which goes on moving. The academic achievement and conflict both arises due to interaction amongst classroom groups i.e. the teacher and his pupils.

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The present study deals with the Kinnaura tribe living in the district Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh. In this study an attempt has been made to identify the customs and customary law of the Kinnaura tribe of Himachal Pradesh (India). This study will be a step to add to the existing literature of the tribal people of Kinnaur in relation to the legal position of their customs and customary laws relating to inheritance, marriage, adoption and other customs. The present study is primarily based on the Wajib-ul-arz (village-wise statement of customs), Riwaz-e-am (district-wise statement of customs) and comprehensive documents of the Government department, commissions, policy planner makers, judicial decisions given by High Court and other law making bodies to promote the customs and customary laws that exist among the Kinnaura tribe of Himachal Pradesh. The present study is more contemporary and exploratory in nature. The main customary laws prevailing among Kinnaura tribe in the specific region of Himachal Pradesh have been focused.

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Education is the most efficient mechanism for the advancement of human being. It enlarges, enriches and improves the individual’s image of the future. Education emancipates the human beings and leads to liberation from ignorance. Education is a constant process of development of innate powers of man which are natural, harmonious and progressive. It is said that in the 21st century a nation’s ability to convert knowledge in to wealth and social good through the process of innovation is going to determine its future, accordingly 21st century is termed as century of knowledge. Education is an essential tool for achieving sustainability.

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A strong, independent and well-organized judiciary plays a vital role in the democratic system of Government. It is charged with the duty of preventing arbitrary use of governmental authority and safeguarding the rights and liberties of citizens. Under the federal form of Government judiciary plays the additional role as the guardian of the Constitution. Our Judicial System is a gift of history. It has descended on us from the British period. The British system of judiciary was characterized by the rule of law, implying the principle of supremacy of law and equal treatment to all before law.

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भर्तृहरि–दर्शन में शब्द–ब्रह्म की शक्तियाँ शब्दब्रह्म से अभिन्न मानी जाती हैं। भर्तृहरि ‘शक्तिशक्तिमतोऽभेदः’ इस न्याय से शक्तिमान् और शक्ति में अभेद मानते हैं। अब प्रश्न यह उठता है कि शब्दब्रह्म से अभिन्न मानी जाने वाली ये शक्तियां क्या हैं? हेलाराज दिक् समुद्देश की पहली कारिका में काल, दिक्, साधन, क्रिया आदि का शक्तियों के रूप में वर्णन करके, शक्ति का लक्षण देते हुए कहते हैं कि परतन्त्रता अर्थात् परतन्त्र होना शक्ति का लक्षण है। इसका अभिप्राय है कि भर्तृहरि शक्ति की परतन्त्रता स्वीकार करते हैं अर्थात् शक्तियाँ शक्तिमान् के अधीन होती हैं। भर्तृहरि ने शब्दब्रह्म को ‘सर्वबीज’ और ‘सर्वशक्तिमान्’ इन शक्तियों के कारण ही कहा है क्योंकि सभी पदार्थ इस संसार में अपने व्यक्त होने से पहले शब्दब्रह्म में बीज, शक्ति या योग्यता के रूप में अवस्थित रहते हैं। वृषभदेव ने पद्धति में ‘बीज’ के लिए ‘शक्ति’ शब्द का प्रयोग और ‘शक्ति’ के लिए ‘योग्यता’ शब्द का प्रयोग किया है।

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The teacher’s behaviour not only as a person but also as a teacher is predominantly controlled by his emotional behaviour, which in turn depends upon the degree of emotional intelligence possessed by him. In the modern world we need not just competent teachers, but teachers, who can question own actions and who are able to envisage new forms of professionalism. In this context the researcher has conducted a study of emotional intelligence and self-concept of prospective teachers. The main objective of the study was to see the relation between emotional intelligence and self-concept of would be teachers. Descriptive survey method was used to solve the purpose. A random sample of 100 prospective teachers from education colleges of Rohtak city was taken.

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Entrepreneur is a key figure in economic progress. He is the person who introduces new things in the economy. Entrepreneur have character of independence, risk-bearing, hope of success analytical ability of mind etc. Youth entrepreneur have been on rural economy scene for quite some time now and have achieved remarkable success. In reference to entrepreneur include decision making, accepting challenges, risk taking, building organization, skillful management, innovation, mobilization of resources etc. Resources are the help needed to carry out activities resulting in accomplishment of goal. Thus, entrepreneurs make themselves distinct from the rest of population because of their innate capability to mobilize resources. Normally in entrepreneurial process follow, exploring the entrepreneurial content, identifying opportunities and possible competitive advantage, starting the venture and managing the venture.

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Today we are in the era of globalisation. Multinational organisations worldwide have adopted globalisation as their first strategic choice. Advancement in technology has facilitated globalisation too. Same holds true for banking industry. Technological advancement, changes and innovations have always leveraged the standards of mankind. It has given new dimensions to society. It has also altered the way services can be offered. Information Technology has been a major driving force of economies worldwide during the last 2 decades. Its impact has been readily felt in banking industry also. With the invention of computer., operations and database management became quite handy. When ARPANET project of Defence Academy of US began, a new technology was born with the advent of internet. The two technological breakthroughs - computers and internet has radically changed the way world can interact and business could be done. Metamorphosis and clubbing of these technologies gave rise to the growth of ITeS (Information Technology enabled Services) across the globe. There has been a marked improvement particularly in the area of maintenance, storage, availability and transfer of data. The world has literally shrunk to become a "global village".

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The present paper examined the relationship of human resources management issues in the social entrepreneurship. The management of Human Resources has now assumed strategic importance in the achievement of organizational growth and excellence. As globalization advances and we move into the information age, organizations need to adapt to the changes in technology and the changing issues in management of people. Some critical issues have clearly emerged - planning, acquisition and development of human resources, responding to the demands of the work place and, above all, evolving a strategy of dealing with industrial conflict.

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The purpose of this study was to examine the emotional intelligence and job stress amongst teachers of both sex (male & female), different cadres (Primary, Secondary & College) and having different self –efficacy beliefs (High and Low). Initially, 900 teachers from different cities of Haryana state of India were contacted and General self-efficacy scale was administered to identify the teachers with High self-efficacy and Low self-efficacy beliefs. The final size was taken with a total of 300 subjects on basis of their scores on General Self-efficacy Scale following the median criteria; scores above median were categories as High self-efficacy and scores below median as Low self-efficacy. The same treatment was given to both Sexes and different cadres as well. To select the sample units, systematic random sampling was used. The obtained scores were analysed by computing Mean, S.D and 2x3x2 factorial analysis of variance. It was observed that sex, cadres and self- efficacy had no significant main effect on Emotional Intelligence and job stress. It was also found that sex and cadre had significant interactive effects on Emotional Intelligence and job stress. Key words: emotional intelligence, job stress teachers, self-efficacy, cadres, sex

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वेद के षड्वेदाङ्ग में ज्योतिषशास्त्र का अन्यतम् स्थान है। ज्योतिषशास्त्र के तीन स्कन्ध है। जिसका नाम सिद्धान्तए संहिता और होरा है। ज्योतिषशास्त्र के विस्तृत क्षेत्र में जीव. विज्ञानए पदार्थविज्ञानए चिकित्साविज्ञान एवं वास्तुविज्ञान है। वास्तुविज्ञान को स्थापत्य शास्त्र भी कहा जाता है१। उपनिषद् काल तक गृह नगर दुर्ग तथा सेतु का निर्माण शुरु हो चुका था। उस समय नवद्वार वा पुर विस्तृत भवन लोहे के दुर्ग आदि का उल्लेख इस बात का संकेत देते है। कि तब तक वास्तु तथा स्थापत्य का भी विकास प्रारम्भ हो गया था२।

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Retail is the sale of goods and services from individuals or businesses to the end-user. Retailers are part of an integrated system called the supply chain. A retailer purchases goods or products in large quantities from manufacturers directly or through a wholesale, and then sells smaller quantities to the consumer for a profit. Retailing can be done in either fixed locations like stores or markets, door-to-door or by delivery.

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Many potential sources of trauma exist in contemporary society. Individuals exposed to traumatic events such as earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, fires, explosions or other terrifying experiences are likely to develop post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This paper presents an overview of the ‘disaster syndrome’ – symptoms of post disaster psychological disorders. Further, the role of immediate crises intervention, telephone hot line counselling and debriefing programs in psychological rehabilitation of the survivors of disasters, is discussed. Supportive therapy, psychopharmacotherapy and direct therapeutic exposure techniques are highlighted for effective dealing of anxiety following traumatic disaster.

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The NPAs have always been a big worry for the banks in India. It is just not a problem for the banks; they are bad for the economy too. The money locked up in NPAs is not available for productive use and adverse effect on banks' profitability is there. The Public Sector Banks have shown very good performance over the private sector banks as far as the financial operations are concerned. However the position of Public Sector Banks is not so good in the area of Non-Performing Assets (NPAs) as compared to Private Sector Banks. This paper examines the causes of NPAs and a comparative study is done between Public Sector Banks and Private Sector Banks using mean, standard error, covariance and t-test. The result showed the significant difference between NPAs of Public and Private Sector Banks under study. Keywords: NPA, Gross NPAs, PSBs, Private Banks, Gross Advances

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Pedagogy is the science (and an art) of teaching. There is a general perception that literature is particularly complex and in accessible for the second/foreign language learner and can even be detrimental to the process of language learning. Teachers usually use an array of teaching strategies to make their lecture effective and communicative. The strategies of the teacher vary according to the level of the learners along with the skill s/he wants to teach. They need variety in order to reach all the students in the class. At the end after using lots of strategies, the question remains the same i.e. how will the teachers know that students truly understands and apply knowledge in an meaningful way? No doubt, the pedagogy is the answer of all these questions. Through this paper I have tried to explore not only the “how” of teaching English literature but the “what” and the “why” also.

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गढ़वाल के लोक-साहित्य की धरती पर कहीं नृत्य, कहीं संगीत, कहीं वाध, कहीं गीत, कहीं गाथाएँ, कहीं कथाएँ तो कहीं नाटय रंग-बिरंगे रूपों में झूमते से नज़र आते हैं। रंगीला गढ़वाल अपनी संस्कृति के रंगों से जाना जाता है। अपने भीतर लोक-साहित्य की सभी विधाओं को समेटे गढ़वाल अपनी जीवंतता का परिचय देता है। सरल शब्दों में लोक-साहित्य वह मौखिक अभिव्यकित है जिसे युगों-युगों से इस संसार में अज्ञात रचयिताओं के द्वारा गढ़ा जाता रहा है और युगों-युगों से हम सभी के द्वारा इसे अपनाया जाता रहा है। इससे स्पष्ट होता है कि इसमें लोक-मानस अनिवार्य रूप से विधमान रहता है। लोक-साहित्य की विधाओं के अंतर्गत लोक-गीत, लोक-गाथा, लोक-कथा, लोक-नाटय और प्रकीर्ण साहित्य आते हैं।

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Fast advances in the wireless technology and the intensive penetration of cell phones have motivated banks to spend large budget on building mobile banking systems, but the adoption rate of mobile banking is still underused than expected. Therefore, research to enrich current knowledge about what affects individuals to use mobile banking is required. In Present scenario mobile is almost in every hand and became a useful gazette which provide various types of financial and other recreation services with its main communication services. By the study it has been revealed that mobile banking is upcoming service which has potential in future but it is still not very popular and there are various factors which can affect the adoption of mobile banking. The research is based on technological model.

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Society is a web of relationship amongst individuals interacting with each other as actors and playing multifarious roles. Every person in the society, whether he or she is mother, father, brother, sister or daughter has to perform his or her duties according to certain norms and social needs. Similarly the physicians, surgeons and nurses and expected to perform their professional duties according to certain code of conduct, in the interest of society. "Being a doctor, a nurse, a father or a patient means that the individual is place in a certain situation and this implies certain prescribed actions.

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Arrest in criminal jurisprudence signifies the detention of a person under the authority of law in connection with an alleged or expected violation of the law. Police officers area entrusted with wide powers of arrest under different circumstances, so are several other classes of officers who are entrusted with the enforcement of penal enactments. Magistrates have powers of arrest in certain circumstances and even private persons have the power to arrest in extraordinary circumstances. But the power to arrest has to be exercised with intelligent discretion and caution. More over, arrest is undoubtedly a serious interference with fundamental right of the personal liberty of the citizen, which includes an arrestee or an accused, guaranteed under Articles 21 and 22 of the Constitution of India and it has to be strictly in accordance with the law, so as to be escaped the arresting authority from the punishment.

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भारतीय इतिहास में 'श्रीराम और 'श्रीकृश्ण के बाद 'महात्मा गांधी का नाम स्मरण किया जाता है क्योंकि उनके बाद कोर्इ व्यकित ऐसा नहीं हुआ जिसने गांधी से अधिक षब्द बोले हो, अक्षर लिखे हों, अनेक समुदायों से मिला हो, नि:संदेह गांधीजी 'महात्मा गांधी अपने दृढ, उच्च, आध्यातिमक दार्षनिक चरित्रगठन के कारण ही बने। इतिहास गवाह रहा है, गांधीजी का सार्वजनिक जीवन दक्षिण अफ्रीका में षुरू हुआ। दक्षिण अफ्रीका में उनका स्वाभिमान चोटिल हुआ। उनको रेलगाड़ी से नीचे उतारा गया। उनका समान फैंक दिया गया। इसी काले-गोरे भेदभाव के कारण लड़े। वे मोहनदास से 'महात्मा गांधी बने।

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The study examined the relationship between occupational stress and emotional intelligence of principals. A sample of 140 principals was randomly drawn from Senior Secondary Schools of Haryana. In order to fulfill the objectives of the study Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient was used. The result showed that there was significant negative relationship between occupational stress and emotional intelligence of principals. All the dimensions of occupational stress were negatively and significantly correlated with emotional intelligence. But the relationship between the dimension (Responsibility) and emotional intelligence was very low but significant.

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This research has the purpose to present a study to highlight .The coordinative abilities of intercollegiate and interuniversity level girls basketball players- AA comparative study. Material Method: The paper is an uncertained study performed on 30 (15 intercollegiate and 15 interuniversity level) female players. T- test has been used. Result: T- value of orientation ability is 0.22 , differentiation ability is 0.24, balance ability is 0.23, rhythm ability is 0.17 which is less than the table value of 2.05. Conclusion: The test emphasized the fact that there is no significant difference in the selected coordinative abilities between intercollege and interuniversity level girls basketball players. During the research we used the following methods (T- test). Keywords: coordinative ability, orientation ability, differentiation ability, balance ability, rhythm ability.

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गाँधी जी चाहते थे कि पुरूषों के साथ-साथ सित्रयाँ भी देश की स्वतंत्रता के अहिंसक सत्याग्रह संग्राम में भाग लें और जो रचनात्मक कार्यक्रम इस आन्दोलन का अभिन्न अंग है उसको कार्यानिवत करने में अग्रणी हों। इसीलिए घर की सित्रयों से मिलना उनके लिए आवश्यक ही था। उन्होंने तो जो भी प्रवृŸाि शुरू की उसमें सित्रयों को बराबर शामिल किया।1 सत्याग्रह जैसे संग्राम में अपासर धीरज और शिकायत किये बगैर मूक कष्टसहन की शकित आवश्यक होती है और ये ऐसे गुण है जो पुरूषों की अपेक्षा सित्रयों में ज्यादा होते है।

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चेतना का शाबिदक अर्थ समझ अथवा ज्ञानात्मक मनोवृत्ति है, जिसका संबंध जीवन-दृषिट से होता है। जीवन-दृषिट वह सारतत्व होता है, जिसका स्वरूप इतिहास-वर्तमान, अच्छा-बुरा,अनुकूल-प्रतिकूल,नया-पुराना आदि के परिसिथतिबोध और द्वंद्व से विनिर्मित होता है। अच्छा-बुरा, नया-पुराना, इतिहास और वर्तमान का द्वंद्व निश्चय ही यथासिथतिवाद का विरोध और नवीन अवधारणाओं का वाहक होता है।

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   No of Download : 35    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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स्वस्थ शरीर में स्वस्थ मन का विकास होता है यह मत आदि काल से ही शिक्षाविदों का रहा है और यह निर्विवाद सत्य भी है। यही कारण है कि समाज ने आरम्भिक काल से ही बालकों के सर्वागीण विकास की रुपरेखा सुनिश्चित करके उसे कार्य रूप में परिणित करने का महत्वपूर्ण उत्तरदायित्व अध्यापकों को सौंप दिया। यही कारण है कि अध्यापन के व्यवसाय को राष्ट्र निर्माण के कार्य से जोड़कर इसे विशेष महत्व दिया गया है क्योंकि अध्यापक ही भावी नागरिकों के चरित्र का निर्माता, मानवीय मूल्यों का निर्माारक और अनुशासन का स्तंभ होता है। एक प्रकार से एक योग्य अध्यापक अप्रत्यक्ष रूप से राष्ट्र एवं समाज का प्रमुख निर्माता होता है

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विषम परिस्थितियो में जब हिन्दुआंें को हिन्दु कहने मंें लज्जा का अनुभव होता था उस समय 12 जनवरी सन् 1863 को कोलकता में विश्व रत्न का जन्म हुआ जो अमेरिका में जाकर विश्व धर्म समेलन में भारत की धर्मध्वजा को फहरा कर भारत को हिमालय की सी गरिमा प्रदान की वह था भारत का आनंद विवेकानन्द। मानवता का सुमन सौरभ,चितंन की महानता, सागर की गहराई ,जीवन का संगीत, धर्म ,दर्शन व संस्कृति की त्रिवेणी ,वाककौशल का मानक ,ज्ञान का दर्पण ,मातृभूमि का सपूत तथा आत्मा का विकसित एवं सुन्दरतम् पुष्पगुच्छ तथा प्राचीन, मध्य एवं आधुनिक व वैदिक और पौराणिक एवं ऐसे अंनत जाज्वल्यमान सितारो का पंचम स्वर है देव दूत विवेकानन्द जो युग पुरूष के रूप में अवतरित होकर विश्व का नेतृत्व करता है।

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The situation is almost the same everywhere-irrespective of the developed country or the developing country-caste, community, colour or creed a position which is comparable in many ways, with that of racial minorities. Women have been relegated to secondary position despite the fact that they numerically constitute about half the world population today. This situation has caused immense loss to their self-dignity as human beings and also their independent entities, associated with men, apart from other matter, in context with intellectual and professional capability.

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President Pranab Mukherjee has given his assent to stricter laws to check crime against women, particularly cases of sexual assault. A Bill to replace the Ordinance that the Union government promulgated in February to enforce harsher anti-rape laws was passed in Parliament last month. “The Criminal Law [Amendment] Bill, 2013 was passed by the Lok Sabha on 19th March, 2013, and by the Rajya Sabha on 21st March, 2013. The President of India has accorded his assent to the Bill on 2nd April, 2013 and it will now be called the Criminal Law [Amendment] Act, 2013,” a government communiqué said.

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Human Resource Management (HRM) is main assets of an organization. The various names of HRM are personal management, man power management, employer relation, human relation, labour management relation, industrial relation etc. It produces, develops and maintains competent workforces in the organization. HRM is a set of policies, practices and programmes to design personal and organizational goals. The main role of HRM is to acquire right man at right job at right time in right number.HRM is the planning, organizing, directing and controlling the operative functions of procurement, development, compensation and maintaining human resources of an organizations goals or objectives. The scope of HRM is very vast starting from recruitment, retainment and retirement. HRM has to face challenges like change management, leadership development and HR effectiveness measure.

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A key prerequisite for successful technology development therefore lies in the ability of an organization to rapidly and efficiently align the requirements of the market with the potential offered by new technologies and to integrate the results in its own products and processes.

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The banking sector reforms were initiated in India in the year 1991 with an aim to enhance their performance. The objective of present paper is to examine the extent to which performance of commercial banks have improved since 1991. It compares performance of public sector with private sector banks. The study utilizes secondary data ranging from 1991 to 2012. The performance measures used in this research include per employee advance and deposits, market share in deposits and advances, net profit to total assets, non-interest income to total income, net NPA to net advances and capital adequacy ratio.

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An analysis of CSR spend of the top 500 listed companies in India shows most do not spend even 1% of their PAT on CSR. Increasing this to the government recommendation, will in most cases, mean more than doubling CSR budgets. Lets analyse some of the immediate implications of this An analysis of CSR spend of the top 500 listed companies in India shows most do not spend even 1% of their PAT on CSR. Increasing this to the government recommendation, will in most cases, mean more than doubling CSR budgets.

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Motivation is the process of management by which employees will encourage to achieve the objective of the organization. The concept of motivation should be implementing in the organization. Management practice, Reward management, working culture and environmental factor are the key factor to enhance the motivation of the employees. If employees will motivate, more work satisfaction and they can achieve the objective of organization in effective manner.

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Indigenous Technical knowledge (ITK) is now in search for blending of traditional technology with model idea to make living more comfortable and save the generation as a whole and particularly among tribal communities from degradation. It is believed that our traditional tribal wisdom was of much value and now also can deliver effective results. It is so in case of tribal art & craft and other life supporting systems. This paper tries to discover, rationalize and blend the traditional tribal artisans with modern ones to make use these ITK through some research mythology.

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Wetlands are one of the most productive ecosystems and play a significant role in the ecological balance. There are many function of wetland such as hydrological function, which includes groundwater recharge, ground water discharge despite of this it help in flood control and flow regulation. Water regime of Kabartal is determined by inflow from direct precipitation and flooding in nearby river. Direct precipitation is significantly to overall inflow into the lake. There is no any outflow mechanism present around the lake area except drainage channel. Status of wetland totally depends upon rainfall. High departure of rainfall is responsible for the shrinkage of the water. Hydrological analysis helps us for taking any further step for maintaining water balance.

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The vocational training is essential for women to take up income generation activities on their own self to earn themselves and to become economically strong. L&T in collaboration with GUARD, an NGO had conducted training programmes for the SHG members. Self Help Groups (SHG) are an informal groups where the number of members in SHGs normally ranges from 10-20. These members have hailed from poor family background, come together to promote savings among themselves to meet the emergent needs of their members. This present study intends to study the effectiveness of training programmes among SHG women. 50 women leaders who are selected as President and Vice President from 25 SHGs were interviewed.

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Indian sub-continent is a vast landmass replete with diverse geographical regions with its distinct vegetation and climate, inhabited by various races with its own specific culture and occupation commensurate with the ecology of the region. Inhabitants of these different regions since time immemorial lived in harmony with nature. This incorporation of nature in their life is represented in various ritualistic forms of worship i.e. tree worship, etc, and celebration of seasonal festivals associated with agricultural cycle i.e. sowing, harvesting time, etc. People had exploited nature initially for subsistence purpose and as population grew and civilization developed the needs of people led to an increased exploitation of resources but the process was gradual and not adversarial. The real weight of exploitation was felt after the colonization of India by European powers and its integration to the world capitalist system.

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जब पद या शब्द अपने-अपने स्वार्थ को पूर्णत: या अंशत: छोड़कर एक विशिष्ट अर्थ को कहने लग जाते हैं, तो उसे व्याकरण शास्त्र में वृत्ति की संज्ञा से अभिहित किया जाता है-‘परार्थाभिधानम्‌ वृत्ति’ अर्थात्‌ एकार्थीभाव विशिष्ट अर्थ का कथन जिसके द्वारा किया जाता है उसे वृत्ति कहते हैं।

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वेदों से लेकर लौकिक साहित्य तक सर्वत्र नैतिक शिक्षा के विषय में भारतीय चिन्तकों तथा नीतिकारों ने प्रभूत चिन्तन किया है। भारत में सदा से ही धर्म-दर्शन और नीति एक-दूसरे से अपृथक रहे हैं। यहाँ पर सदा से धारणा रही है कि बिना नैतिक पवित्रता के सत्य का ज्ञान नहीं हो सकता। बिना श्रद्धा के आत्मा परमात्मा का दर्शन या अनुभव नहीं हो सकता और बिना बुद्धि के सदसदविवेक तथा मुकित नहीं हो सकती, इसलिए बुद्धि की कामना की गर्इ है- ''धियो यो न: प्रचोदयात। (य. 363)

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This paper discusses in depth, the importance of liquidity risk management and interest rate risk management, various methods of measuring these risks and the challenges faced by Indian banks in managing these risks. It explains how these risks can be managed through an Asset Liability Management system. This paper discusses issues in asset-liability management and elaborates on various categories of risk that require to be managed. It examines strategies for asset-liability management from the asset side as well as the liability side, particularly in the Indian context. It also discusses the specificity of financial institutions in India and the new information technology initiatives that beneficially affect asset-liability management. The emerging contours of conglomerate financial services and their implications for asset-liability management are also described.

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The purpose of the study was to assess achievement motivation among volleyball players of different levels. A total number of 60 subjects were selected, further these male volleyball players were classified as 30 Inter- Collegiate volleyball players and 30 Inter- University level volleyball players. One psychological variable (achievement motivation) was selected for the purpose of the study. The data was computed and analyzed by descriptive statistic followed by t- test. It was hypothesized that there will be a significant difference among inter-college and inter –university volleyball players. The result of the study indicates that there was no significant differences obtained on the psychological variable of Achievement motivation with respect to comparison among inter- university and inter-collegiate level volleyball players. Key notes: - Achievement Motivation, descriptive statistic.

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The purpose of the study was to find out theComparison of dermatoglyphic pattern in distal phalanges of sports men and non-sports men. The study signified that there is a need to create awareness among the professionals and sport scientist about the dermetoglyphic patterns in relation to sports men and non-sports men. The study was confined to 300 sports men(150 male and 150 female.) and 300 non –sports men (150 male and 150 female) . The data was analyzed by the help of statistical techniques percentage and analysis of variance (ANOVA). A significant difference in dermatoglyphic pattern in the distal phalanges was found between males and females of sports and non-sports categories Important terms: dermatoglyphyics, comparison, sports men and non-sports men.

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This paper is an exploration of the discussion of two spaces of political action, that of Foucault’s heterotopia and Harvey’s relational spacetime. Both of them are scrutinised for their suitability to afford a time other than the non-linear, a time which Benjamin has called the time of the vanquished.

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Money laundering is the key operation of underground economy. Earlier this was not a big crime but from the day of attack on world trade centre this has become a serious problem. This paper covers the concept of money laundering, history and the process which shows that generally there are three stages involved in the process of money laundering placement, layering and integration. Some of the causes of money laundering may be bank secrecy laws, more dependence on financial services sector, corporate secrecy laws. Banks play a major role in curbing this menace. Some of the estimates shows that total amount of money laundered exceed $500 billion in the world each year. In India Prevention of money laundering Act 2002 has established in order to control this crime. This paper also covers the effects of money laundering on economic and political stability and also on banking system. Key words: money laundering, crime, banks, anti-money laundering

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   No of Download : 103    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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आज वर्तमान युग विज्ञान का युग है। सर्वत्र वैज्ञानिक क्षेत्र में हुई उन्नति की धूम दिखाई देती है। बटन दबाते ही हर कार्य संभव हो जाता है। विज्ञान के साथ-साथ प्राौद्योगिकी के क्षेत्र में हुई अभूतपूर्व प्रगति और विकास ने पिछली शताब्दी के उत्तरार्द्ध और विशेष तौर पर उसके अंतिम तीन चार दशकों में सूचना-क्रांति की अवधारणा को जन्म दिया है। कंप्यूटर इस क्रांति की प्रातिनिधि प्राौद्योगिकी है।सूचना-क्रांति ने मानव-समाज को प्राभावित किया है।

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   No of Download : 40    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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With increased competition in the market, companies make each and every effort to hire the best employee for its organisation. The employer knows that the employee who is competent enough will work as an advantage for the company. It will lead to the better performance of the company and help in achieving the goals of the organisation. That is why these days candidate faces a stiff competition for getting the job. When the candidate is selected for the job he/she should be given proper orientation training. Theemployer needs to know the importance ofthe orientation /induction training to the new employee. Orientation training means to give the basic information about the company to understand the job better.

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   No of Download : 54    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Social Media in today’s time played a vital role in socialconnectivity. There are 82 million users of social media. It open the way of direct communication this study is about to explore the social media use by people. Social media provide peoples to create a web society and follow some rules and regulation. On social sites people develop their own rules to behave on the net. This study is to know what accepted social norms are followed by the new media users. There are not any written rules by any group, but followed by everyone. Content analysis method is use to studying and analyzing communication in systematic objective and quantities manners for the purpose of measuring variables. Eighty face book users profile is studied from the period of 15th to 20th March 2013 and around 204 post of the user’s actively examined the tabulated according their specific concern of profile like, photo, gender, age, no. of friends and also topic status updates, likes and nature of comments on the sharing post.

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At any level of development, human impact on the environment is a function of population size, per capita consumption and the environmental damage caused by the technology used to produce what is consumed. Population growth has a direct impact on sustainable development. Yet, very often the connection is not being made nor is it talked about. India is booming and sustainable development becomes increasingly more important, According to a United Nations report, India’s population currently encompasses about 1.2 billion people and is expected to grow by another 300 million within the next couple of decades. With cities generating two-thirds of the country’s economic output, an increasing number of Indians are leaving rural areas to seek employment in cities, relying on an efficient urban infrastructure. By 2030 it is predicted that 68 Indian cities will each have more than one million inhabitants, and six megacities, more than ten million each.

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In past one and a half decade, banks in India have invested heavily the technology such as telebanking, mobile banking, net banking, automated teller machines (ATMs), credit cards, debit cards, smart cards, customer relationship management (CRM) software, electronic payment systems and data warehousing and data mining solutions, to bring improvements in; quality of customer services, scale and specialization in products, alternative sources of income particularly from fee-based services, geographical reach through communication networks and electronic delivery channels, risk management practices, housekeeping, internal control systems and regulatory compliance, cost efficiencies and scale economies.

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For libraries, the most common automation device is the electronic digital computer. Library process that are now being controlled by the computer include bookkeeping, material ordering, cataloguing, serial control, circulation, bibliographic data retrieval and some aspect of interlibrary loan work. This articles defines the automation and its requirement in libraries. Some Automation package are describe here which are used by several libraries.

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For this study we conducted a survey.The survey conducted by us is an attempt to know the consumer preference regarding malls and to answer questions such as, 1) Do they love visiting a mall? 2) Why do they get attracted to these biggies? 3) Is it a boon or nuisance for them? 4) What kind and level of satisfaction they get?

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When Internet was developed, the founding fathers of Internet hardly had any inclination that Internet could transform itself into an all pervading revolution which could be misused for criminal activities and which required regulation. Today, there are many disturbing things happening in cyberspace. Due to the anonymous nature of the Internet, it is possible to engage into a variety of criminal activities with impunity and people with intelligence, have been grossly misusing this aspect of the Internet to perpetuate criminal activities in cyberspace. Hence the need for Cyberlaws in India.

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Responsibility accounting (RA) is used to manage horizontal relationships among several responsibility center (RC) managers including those who work on committees or cross-functional teams. I find theory-consistent evidence that the goal-congruent design or redesign of accounting and participation practices in general, and of RA in particular, depends on the magnitude, scope, and speed of organizational process change. When there is a change in the magnitude, scope, and speed of organizational process change, I find that the measurability of RC managers’ financial performance can change, and I also find that using RA to manage RC boundaries is an important mechanism for achieving goal-congruent behavior and avoiding dysfunctional behavior.

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   No of Download : 22    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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The bold decisions of the Indian government for liberalising FDI policy in key sectors such as civil aviation, retail and telecom have resonated with the global community and we have seen results in the last few months. The government will continue its endeavour for liberalising the FDI policy further in the coming weeks to ensure that India retains its leadership position for attracting foreign investments.

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Social media, a group of Internet-based applications facilitating the creation and sharing of messages, pictures, and videos by Internet users, continues to be a growing phenomenon around the world. The popularity of online profile sites such as Facebook, Myspace, and Twitter has given a new wave to social media. These sites are continuously expanding the number of connections among individuals and groups around the world. Organizers of social movements are taking advantage of these tools to spread their message and garner support. The impacts of social media broadly has two dimensions positive and negative. To look at the role of social media in social movements, this case study analyzes Facebook activity related to India’s anti-corruption movement in 2011 and early 2012. We examine how the anticorruption movement used Facebook, how frequency of user activity correlated to the type of content being used and shared on Facebook, and ways in which real-world protest events and government actions affected user activity.

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नाट्‌यशास्त्र भारतीय कला परम्परा का एक आकार ग्रन्थ ही नहीं अपितु यह एक विश्वकोशात्मक और सर्वांगीण ग्रन्थ है। नाट्‌य में संसार की सारी कलाएँ ज्ञान, शिल्प और विज्ञान समाहित हो सकते हैं, पर उसके अपने मंच पर, उस मंच की निजता को भंग किये बिना यह समागम होता है।

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For most people, pay is a primary reason for working .Indeed, compensation is at the core of any employment exchange, and it serves as a defining characteristic of any employment relationship. The study focusesoncriticalpointsofcompensationandincentivesmanagement.The fundamentals of a good incentive program include the elements of vision, potential, communication and motivation and can be realized if incentive promises are fulfilled–by both employer and employee. The aim of the paper is to identify the most important attributes of compensation and incentives management.

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   No of Download : 16    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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This study examined the relationships among physical fitness, Academic performance and conduct of Indian secondary school children. Data were collected among 100 pupils from Class 6 to Class 8 (mean age= 12.9, SD=0.84) from NCT Delhi. Three fitness items were tested including Aerobic Fitness, agility and body mass index. Student’s academic performance was based upon their annual examination result, which was being conducted one week after the fitness test was taken. Result indicated that selected components of physical fitness i.e. Aerobic Fitness, Agility and B.M.I. have positive effect on Academic Performance (p=0.628>0.05) and Conduct (p=0.063>0.05). Regarding gender differences, boys and girls differ significantly on Aerobic Fitness (p<0.01) and shuttle run test (p<0.01) but not on B.M.I. (p=0.87>0.05). To conclude, the dispute that physical activity participation deteriorates academic performance was clarified to some extent through this study.

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   No of Download : 28    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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This study examined the relationships among physical fitness, Academic performance and conduct of Indian secondary school children. Data were collected among 100 pupils from Class 6 to Class 8 (mean age= 12.9, SD=0.84) from NCT Delhi. Three fitness items were tested including Aerobic Fitness, agility and body mass index. Student’s academic performance was based upon their annual examination result, which was being conducted one week after the fitness test was taken. Result indicated that selected components of physical fitness i.e. Aerobic Fitness, Agility and B.M.I. have positive effect on Academic Performance (p=0.628>0.05) and Conduct (p=0.063>0.05). Regarding gender differences, boys and girls differ significantly on Aerobic Fitness (p<0.01) and shuttle run test (p<0.01) but not on B.M.I. (p=0.87>0.05). To conclude, the dispute that physical activity participation deteriorates academic performance was clarified to some extent through this study.

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Globalization is not new, though. For thousands of years, people—and, later, corporations—have been buying from and selling to each other in lands at great distances, such as through the famed Silk Road across Central Asia that connected China and Europe during the Middle Ages. The present era is said to be an age of globalization. Globalization is a broad term and encompasses varied perspectives. It refers to the global outlook of different nations of the world coming closer and joining hands in terms of economy, education, culture, society and politics. Globalization empowers a view for the entire world as a whole irrespective of the national identity and thus globalization has narrowed the world by bringing people of all nations closer (What is globalization?). To understand globalization, it is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations.

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   No of Download : 29    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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This paper explores the role of institution in regional development of a country. Paper is divided mainly in two parts first part explains the theoretical framework that what is institution, based on some empirical studies, and second part is based on some analytical framework explored through regression technique to explain role of institution in India.

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   No of Download : 32    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Human history is the history of intimate relationship between human beings and the natural world. To start with, the first human species which is known as “Homo sapiens” , often referred as our ancestors, were dependent on the world around them for its very existence. Being a food gatherer and hunter, they were also involved in making wider use of fire. They used it to harden wood, split rocks; cook food especially plants and so on. Their brain size got fully developed and they also started interacting with each other which leads to the formation of

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From the beginning of early 19th century the forests of India received the proper share of attention both as the source of natural wealth and as a department of the administration. Uttarakhand was known for its dense forests. “An early commissioner of Kumaun, investigating sources of fed for a proposed iron mine, was bold enough to declare that the forests of Kumaun and Garhwal are boundless and, to all appearances, inexhaustible” . When the British annexed this region, it came under the North-West provinces and Oudh. The North-West provinces and

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Social geography is the branch of human geography that is most closely related to social theory in general and sociology in particular, dealing with the relation of social phenomena and its spatial components. Though the term itself has a tradition of more than 100 years, there is no consensus on its explicit content.The different conceptions of social geography have also been overlapping with other sub-fields of geography and, to a lesser extent, sociology. When the term emerged within the Anglo-American tradition during the 1960s, it was basically applied as a synonym for the search for patterns in the distribution of social groups, thus being closely connected to urban geography and urban sociology.

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   No of Download : 82    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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In the last decades, second language (L2) teaching and learning have been dominated by communicative language teaching methods and interactionist theories. Since the adoption of these approaches, interaction has become paramount in teaching programmes and courseware products both as the learning aim and as the best tool to develop the learner’s L2 communicative skills. Although it seems obvious that pronunciation should play an important role within such a language curriculum, the training of this skill is still often neglected within traditional L2 classroom instruction. The reasons for this are several. On the one hand, some misconceptions about the possibility of successfully teaching L2 pronunciation have made research on this field less attractive than, for instance, research on grammar or vocabulary acquisition. As a result, few empirical studies are available on pronunciation training and clear pedagogical guidelines that could be used by language educators are still lacking. On the other hand, when designing a pronunciation-training programme, one has to reckon with practical constraints. For the student, learning pronunciation ideally requires prolonged supervised practice and interaction with native speakers; for the teacher, it ideally implies intensive interaction with the student and the provision of feedback on individual problems. These tasks are extremely time-consuming and difficult to implement in class-based settings.

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Extensive research work has been carried out by the academicians, research scholars, private organisations and the government agencies on the wide range of issues pertaining to women entrepreneurs and their problems in India. However, the root cause of slow pace of development of women entrepreneurs in India is psychological nature. The perception barrier of men towards women and more importantly women towards women is the main cause of slow development of women entrepreneurs in India.

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M&A refers to the buying, selling, dividing and combining of different companies and similar entities that can help an enterprise grow rapidly in its sector or location of origin, or a new field or new location, without creating a subsidiary, other child entity or using a joint venture. Mergers and acquisitions activity can be defined as a type of restructuring in that they result in some entity reorganization with the aim to provide growth or positive value. M&A is the emergence of a new structure out of two old ones. It is an instrument of macroeconomic renewal.

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Depositary receipts (DRs) are certificates that represent an ownership interest in the ordinary shares of stock of a company, but that are marketed outside of the company’s home country to increase its visibility in the world market and to access a greater amount of investment capital in other countries. Depositary receipts are structured to resemble typical stocks on the exchanges that they trade so that foreigners can buy an interest in the company without worrying about differences in currency, accounting practices, or language barriers, or be concerned about the other risks in investing in foreign stock directly. Resembling an ordinary share certificate, the DR certificate contains the general terms and conditions of the depositary receipt that apply to DR holders.

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Abstracts:- India is culturally, socially, economicallypolitically diversified and largest democratic country of the world. Small sector industry is not only our past glory but also it plays vital role in present to achieve inclusive growth targets for Indian economy .Handloom industry in one of them it generate job opportunity for semi and unskilled labour force ,it provides social security to rural and semi urban area’s workers and helps them to improve their social-economic condition of middle-low income group people in Indiaand alsoincrease our exports .Indian handloom industry is facing lots of problems like poverty ,low investment , outdated technology ,less government support and decreasing its products demand in market globalized economy from last couple of decades . Globalization sets both new opportunities and challenges toIndian handloom industry .This industry gets new technology, investment and markets on other hand it also lose their glory and demand in front of other competitive market. It has become necessary for us to improve quality of our handloom products by using advanced technology, moreinvestment and government protections.

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Humans by nature cannot sit idle and like to be occupied in some activity or other. Even while watching TV, a person can be said to be engaged in activity. An activity can be defined as any kind of occupation a sentient human being engaged. It can be constructive or destructive according to the types of activity being performed. Physical activity reduces stress, strengthens the heart and lung, increases energy level, helps to maintain and achieve a healthy body weight and importantly improves one’s outlook on life. Physical activities denote the use of human body and energy while performing different action. The human body fantastically designed for physical activity and man has achieved tremendous progress in the field of sports by utilizing this quality. Walking, running, jogging, jumping, puling, pushing, lifting and throwing are some of the action that everyone is familiar with. Physical activity is a serious threat to human health and well being. Now-a-days, technology has advanced so much that we get everything with least physical exertion, thus making our lifestyle sedentary. A lifestyle which promotes least physical activity becomes a cause of various health related problem like high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, coronary artery diseases and more and planned, structured physical activities and exercise can be minimise this kind of health disorders.

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The environmental crisis is now known as important public issue and required permanent solution. Only the technology, law or a mere policy cannot solve the problem of environmental pollution. No doubt that these are problem solving tool but without the contribution of society all have less effects. The contribution of the public at large as a researcher, scientist, lawyer or more appropriately social worker, influence theprospects of sustainable development.This contribution of the researcher in their respective areas, reformers, social worker etc. is known as the social work practices and the role of social work practices are important in setting up for sustainable development. These practices with easy work efforts combined with the social, economic, and political components and prepared the foundation in social values.

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Higher education System of now a days has become a challenging task for present educators. There is increased emotional, physical, and mental stress in the educational institutions, defined as burnout. Although employee Burnout have been largely researched over the past years in an extensive diversity of sectors, from health care to universities but the existing literature had not scrutinized much on the Job Burnout of Faculty members teaching in Private Universities. Maslach Burnout Inventory has been used to measure level of Job Burnout in the present study. The findings of the study shows no significant difference of faculty members on the basis of Gender while a significant difference was observed on the basis of Experience, Qualification & Designation on three variables of Job Burnout i.e EE, DEP & PA/ Efficacy. Such findings can act as a guiding factor for Management of Higher Educational Institutions so as to diminish Job Burnout and to enhance professional and personal well being of faculty in large.

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This paper argues that it would be impossible to determine the boundaries of the medieval area called by the word ‘Hindustan’ if we do not take into account its double usage. While, at one level, it referred to the Indian Subcontinent on a whole, it also referred to a regional area too. Ancient Sanskrit names like Jambudipa, Bharatavarsha, Bharata, Madhyadesa and Arab-Persian al-Hind and ‘Hindustan’ varied geographically and their usages seem confusing. This paper attempts tracing out which area was called as 'Hindustan' in the manner similar to the other regional constituents of the Indian Subcontinent like Malwa, Gujrat, Bengal, Sindh etc., in their contemporary meanings without involving the confusion of modern boundaries. Further, it also attempts to trace, in terms of region, the area attached with the word ‘Hindustan’, or its geographical translation. Pursuing this hypothesis can lead us to interesting and useful formulations regarding the modern usages of the older remnants of collective belonging for the development of nationalism (inclusive or exclusive) in the post-Partition nation-states in British India. It would also allow clearing the murky waters of the connotations and their geographical translations, which may not have been entirely clear to us so far.

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Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems are among the most popular Information Technology (IT) software being adopted in organizations globally. Such systems offer strategic and operational improvements to firms. ERP system is an enterprise-wide information system designed to coordinate all the resources, information, and activities needed to complete business processes. An ERP system supports the business system that maintains a single database for a variety of business functions such as Manufacturing, Supply Chain Management, Financials, Projects, Human Resources and Customer Relationship Management. Now a day’s ERP systems are being adopted by various organizations as part of their business growth strategies and play an important role for small scale and large scale industries to run all their major functional and process operations (Batada and Rahman, 2012). ERP systems are being implemented by different industries across the world both in production and service domains. Recently, service organizations have invested considerable resources in the implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems to improve efficiency, cost effectiveness and quality of service operations of the various service industries. Tourism industry is one which is depended on integrated information network that plays a critical role in enhancing business success relationship.

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The Indian financial system is changing fast, marked by strong economic growth, more robust markets, and considerably greater efficiency. But to add to its world-class equity markets, and growing banking sector, the country needs to improve its bond markets. While the government and corporate bond markets have grown in size, they remain illiquid. The corporate market, in addition, restricts participants and is largely arbitrage-driven. To meet the needs of its firms and investors, the bond market must therefore evolve. This will mean creating new market sectors such as exchange traded interest rate and foreign exchange derivatives contracts. It will need a relaxation of exchange restrictions and an easing of investment mandates on contractual savings institutions to attract a greater variety of investors (including foreign) and to boost liquidity.

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E-commerce refers to the purchase and sale of goods and/or services via electronic channels such as the Internet. E-commerce was first introduced in the 1960s via an electronic data interchange (EDI) on value-added networks (VANs). The medium grew with the increased availability of Internet access and the advent of popular online sellers in the 1990s and early 2000s. Amazon began operating as a book-shipping business in Jeff Bezos' garage in 1995. EBay, which enables consumers to sell to each other online, introduced online auctions in 1995 and exploded with the 1997 Beanie Babies frenzy. Like any digital technology or consumer-based purchasing market, e-commerce has evolved over the years. As mobile devices became more popular, mobile commerce has become its own market. With the rise of sites like Facebook and Pinterest, social media has become an important driver of e-commerce. As of 2013, Facebook drove 85 percent of social media-originating sales on e-commerce platform Shopify, according to Pay mill. Like any digital technology or consumer-based purchasing market, e-commerce has evolved over the years. As mobile devices became more popular, mobile commerce has become its own market. With the rise of sites like Facebook and Pinterest, social media has become an important driver of e-commerce. As of 2014, Facebook drove 85 percent of social media-originating sales on e-commerce platform Shopify, according to Pay mill.

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More than half of the population of the world is made of woman but she is not treated at par with man despite innumerable evolutions and revolutions. She has the same mental and moral power, yet she is not recognized as his equal. In such conditions the question of searching her identity is justified. Actually in this male dominated society, she is wife, mother, sister and homemaker. She is expected to serve, sacrifice, submit and tolerate each ill against her peacefully. Her individual self has very little recognition in the patriarchal society and so complete selflessness is her normal way of life.

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प्रदूषण, वर्तमान विकास के युग का एक बहुचर्चित विषय व आधुनिक सभ्यता द्वारा उत्पन्न एक पर्यावरणीय समस्या है। प्रदूषण हमारे परिवेश में उन परिवर्तनों का परिणाम है जो पौधों, प्राणियों और मनुष्यों पर हानिकारक प्रभाव डालते है।पृथ्वी पर वायु प्रदूषण का आंरभ तभी से माना जाता है जब मनुष्य ने भोजन पकाने और गर्मी एवं उष्मा पाने के लिए लकड़ी जलाना आरंभ किया। कोयले की खोज और उपयोग में वृद्धि के कारण वायु प्रदूषण काफी बढ़ चुका है बीसवीं सदी के आरंभ में यातायात की व्यवस्थाओं के विकास और बड़े पैमाने पर पेट्रोल और डीजल के उपयोग के कारण वायु प्रदूषण बढ़ने लगा।

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There is lot of talent in the Raigad in wrestling but due to the lake of availabilities of proper guidance, good training methods, scientific knowledge by the trainer and coaches and above all standard adequate facilities are the main blockages in the progress and promotion of the wrestling the area of Raigad District.

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Adolescence is fundamentally a period of physical and physiological changes. The young person’s reactions to physical changes may range from pride and pleasant expectation to bewilderment and fear. When adolescents evaluate each other, especially when they consider qualities they like in a manner of the opposite sex, “good looks” are often mentioned. In particular they dominate in descriptions of girls than of boys but other physical characteristics such as body build, height and the like are often noted when boys are being “sized up”. One of the most characteristic features of adolescence is the increase in size i.e. in height and weight. However, the beginning of adolescence, known as pubescence, brings with it abrupt and psychologically significant physical changes. While many of these physical changes, such as growth in height and deepening of the voices are obvious and commonly known, others are hidden or less obvious but nonetheless significant.

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Around the 18th Century a number of significant events took place in the world. One such event was the Industrial Revolution which took place in England. It gradually spread to other countries of Europe also. You must have read about the Industrial Revolution that took place in England, and also read about the discovery of new sea and trade routes. One such sea route to India was discovered by a Portuguese called Vasco da Gama in 1498. As a result, the English, French, Portuguese and the Dutch came to India for trade. They also used it to spread missionary activities in India.

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Total livestock in western Rajasthan as per 2003 livestock census is 235.88 lakhs, which is 48.01 percent of Rajasthan state. Livestock population of 2003 has been decreased by more than 10 percent from 1997 census and main reason of this situation is the decreasing usefulness of male livestock. Bullocks, male buffaloes and camel use in agriculture and cartage is decreasing constantly in view of mechanization in agricultural practices. Irrigation from open wells in western Rajasthan has been decreased significantly and use of livestock for water drawl has been nearly stopped due to depth and use of pump-sets. Tube-wells are most common in the region and technology support has simplified search of ground water resources with the help of satellite. However, the drinking water problem has been provided to most of the villages of the western Rajasthan and even in summers, only very few villages require water availability through tankers.

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Development of a country in general and of a man in particular depends on the quality of education. The importance of a teacher in the educational process is unquestionable. According to Radha Krishan (1962) “The Teacher place in society is of vital importance. He acts as a pivot for the transmission of traditions and technical skills from generation to generation and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. He not only guides the individual, but also so as to say, the destiny of the nation. Teachers have therefore to realize increasingly their special responsibility to the society”