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Volume -5 Issue - 12
Month [Year] -- December [2014]
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Abstract Delhi has the second largest slum Population in India. Nearly 1.8 million people lives in slum areas in capital of India - New Delhi. These people are mostly unemployed or daily wage workers who cannot even afford basic necessities of life. Delhi, till recently was divided into 9 administrative districts. Though it has 11 districts as of now, the census of 2011 has been done on the administrative division of Delhi into 9 districts. SamajikSuvidhaSangam, Delhi has conducted survey in all the areas of Delhi, District wise and area wise, in search of venerable and most venerable families. The society also collected the data on many attributes like the number of families in each area, population of area, the caste status of each family, literacy of each individual, sex of each individual, whether the individual is married or not, age of the individual, the status of family whether it is Vulnerable or Most Vulnerable.

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Abstract: The framework for NRHM entails that as AWW has been engrossed in ICDS and has not been able to act as change agent on health ASHA would fill her role. However the major difference between an ASHA and AWW comes in terms of her identity of being from the community and being involved as a change agent for the community. She is supposed to play an immense role in village health plan along with PRI members and other stakeholders of the community. Although she is considered as the activist who would fill the void for creating a full-fledged community participation in health planning, the incentivised nature of the program, stringent monitoring for fulfilling coverage of vertical programs, the emphasis on skill building of ASHA in the training modules specifically for functioning as community mobiliser for JSY, immunization, family planning has restricted her role only to a health worker at periphery. This paper reads in to the aspect of activism in conceptualisation of ASHA vis-a vis the field reality.

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ABSTRACT To study consumer buying behaviour has become one of the most important and complex task for the organisations. In order to gain a competitive advantage over its competitors huge amount of money and time is devoted to understand the nature of consumer buying process. This paper aims to understand the process of consumer buying and the factors that influences such decision making process.

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History is a great teacher for the coming generations as it consists of deeds and mistakes made by erstwhile kings, warriors, social and religious leaders and thinkers and important personalities who could change the course of life and destiny of persons, communities, states, countries and the world at large. The worst thing that happened while writing of the history of any community, religious sect and nation is that it has always been subjective and biased as the historians and the persons who prevailed upon historians have given their own versions and interpretations, mostly what suited to their personal and community interests. History of India and Pakistan before 1947 was one and the same but in school and college curriculums of history teaching of both the countries after partitions one surprisingly detects are the vast differences in the narration of the same event and persons in focus. It becomes difficult for the young learner of history of India and Pakistan to come to the final conclusion of happening of the event and the causes of behind that particular occurrence.

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Jhumpa Lahiri has explored the identity crisis, racial and cultural conflicts, ethnicity, sense of belongingness, loneliness and alienation among the immigrants. The history of immigration is the history of alienation and its consequences. For every freedom won, a tradition is lost. For every second generation assimilated, a first generation in one way or another spurned. For the gains of goods and services, an identity gets lost, and uncertainty found.Literature should remain the faithful representation of contemporary society. So, it is the moral duty of the diaspora writers to remain faithful while mixing the facts with fiction in their writings. They would be considered, to some extent the flag bearers of the history of their time. Majority of the diaspora writers write about their own experiences, the problems that they have to face while settling on the new land.

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Abstract: India one of fastest emerging economies of the world consists the resources that provide suitable platforms for development of trade and commerce around the Globe. In recent years it attracts Investors, man power, corporate companies, technology, research, social organizations etc, from every nic and corner of the world. After the post Independence period even though there are developments in social, economical technological, educational and standard of living in rural areas there are many challenges to make this country as financially stable the programmes of the central and state govt for develop- ing the country have not achieved a remarkable progress. As every year the union budget is declared there are a lot of things to be understood which are the root cause for our economic instability.

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The Act of Reading a literary text has become difficult over the years. This is because the reading of literature involves three the authority who creates it, the text itself and the reader (or the critic) at a time and our perception of these three has changed in recent years. From Eliot, Richards and Leavis, the pioneers of twentieth century criticism to John Crowe Ransom, Cleanth Brooks, Robert Penn Warren, Allen Tate, William Empson and William Wimsatt, the New critics of U.S.A. in the forties, we get a shift in emphasis from the author to the text, a clear departure from the empirical or biographical criticism of the nineteenth century. In the second half of the twentieth century the critical revolution began with the linguistics of Ferdinand de-Saussure and Roman Jakobson, the structuralist authropology of Claude Levi-Strauss.

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A type of literary criticism that became a dominant force in Western Literary studies in the late 1970 ’ s, feminist theory more broadly conceived was applied to linguistic and literary matters. Since the early 1980 ’ s, feminist literary criticism has developed and diversified in a number of ways and is now characterized by a global perspectives. It is nonetheless important to understand differences among the interests and assumptions of French, British and North America,(United States and Canada), feminist critics writing during the 1970 ‘ s, and early 1980 ‘ s, given the context to which their works shaped the evolution of contemporary feminist critical discourse.

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ABSTRACT Today Mergers and Acquisition have become very popular around the world. This has become most important due to globalization, liberalization, privatization or technological developments and intensely competitive business environment in India. Mergers and acquisition are a big part of corporate finance world. This process is broadly used for restructuring the business organization. The current paper evaluates the reasons for the merger of HDFC bank and Centurion bank of Punjab ltd. The aim of the paper is to study based on the impact of merger on the operating profit of the HDFC bank. The analysis consists of two phases first is the pre-merger and second is the post-merger.

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सम्प्रति, युद्धभूमि में तृतीय पक्ष के प्रयोग की रणनीति कोई नवीन घटना नहीं है। संघर्श की विविध घटनाओं का ऐतिहासिक अवलोकन करने पर ऐसे कई उदाहरण मिलते है, जब राज्यों द्वारा भृतक सैनिकों का प्रयोग किया गया एवं विरोधियों से संघर्श हेतु अन्य देषों की सेवाएं ली गयीं। हालांकि युद्ध की इस विधा को महाषक्तियों की षीतकालीन प्रतिस्पर्धा से रणनीतिक आयाम मिला। षीतकालीन प्रतिस्पर्धात्मक परिवेष में तृतीय पक्ष को प्रयुक्त करने के पाष्र्व में, महाषक्तियों के प्रत्यक्ष संघर्श के दृश्टिगत, सम्पूर्ण विध्वंष की आषंकाजन्य धारणा निहित थी। एक तरफ, वैष्विक पटल पर, अपने प्रभाव क्षेत्र विस्तार के दृश्टिगत, मित्र राश्ट्रों को सुरक्षा तथा समर्थन देने की महाषक्तियों की रणनीति ने प्रच्छन्न्ा-युद्ध पद्धति को स्थापित किया तो दूसरी तरफ, दुर्बल राश्ट्रों ने भी अपने सबल प्रतिद्वन्दियों को कमजोर कर उन्हें परास्त करने की रणनीति के रूप में इसे प्रयुक्त किया। षीतयुद्ध की समाप्ति पर, प्रत्याषा के अनुरूप ये विसंगतियां समाप्त नहीं हुई हैं। आज प्रच्छन्न्ा-युद्ध न केवल दुर्बल राश्ट्रों की स्त्रातजी के रूप में स्थापित हुआ है बल्कि महाषक्ति अमेरिका भी इसे अपने रणनीतिक उपकरण के रूप में प्रयुक्त कर रहा है। अपने अभ्युदय के साथ ही पाकिस्तान ने भारत के विरुद्ध प्रच्छन्न्ा-युद्ध छेड़ रखा है। भारतीय उपमहाद्वीप में, प्रच्छन्न्ा-युद्ध को पाकिस्तान ने अपनी रक्षा एवं विदेष नीति का अंग बना लिया है। पाक प्रायोजित प्रच्छन्न्ा-युद्ध के समुचित प्रतिकार के लिए भारत को एक सुविचारित, दीर्घकालिक रणनीति सृजित करनी होगी।

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The rulers of Awadh were active patrons of art and culture. They inherited the rich traditions of the Mughals and strengthened these by creating an atmosphere of trust and cooperation amongst their subjects. They also created an environment of eclecticism by bringing together heterogeneous elements in several aspects like painting, music, philosophy, education and religion. Under the patronage of the Nawabs of Awadh, who conformed to Shi’a rituals, the marsiya and sozkhwani rose to unprecedented heights1; as a literary genre it represented a synthesis of multiple Indian traditions. Marsiya and Sozkhwani took shape in accordance with these developments in language, musical forms, and Shi’a rituals2 and came to reflect all aspects of the culture of Awadh.

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This article consists of six sections. The second section deals about the trends of Scheduled Caste women in higher education. The third section analysis about rural-urban and inter-state variations. The fourth section discusses about faculty-wise and course-wise participations. The fifth section analyses about the barriers and the last section ends with conclusion. I. Introduction According to 2001 Census, the total number of Scheduled Castes (SCs) population in India was about 166,635,700 which consist of about 16.2 per cent of the total population (1,028,610,328). Of the total Scheduled Castes population (166,635,700), 80,546,940 are women, which accounts for about 48.33 per cent. Of the Scheduled Castes women population, about 79.96 per cent live in rural areas and the remaining 20.03 per cent in urban areas.

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Executive Summary Understandingthe Rural Psychehas always been a challenge for marketers. In India where majority of its population resides in rural area, marketers need to pay their attention in understanding their behaviour. Many of researches have been carried out in rural areas. Companies like HUL, ITC, Coca Cola have successfully flourished in rural areas as these were aware of insights of rural India or they were close to their customers. In other words these companies had better understanding of their customers. Mobile Market in urban area has reached saturation according to many telecom players in India. So they are heading towards rural India now. Even some companies like TATA Indicom is already generating huge revenue through value added services provided by them from rural consumer. So time has come, when Mobile phone handset companies need to enter rural markets. For this these companies need to be very clear about their strategies. These should know how rural purchase behaviour is different from the urban purchase behaviour for mobile phones

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पण्डित हीरालाल शास्त्री का व्यक्तित्व समष्टि के लिए था, जब भी व्यक्ति व्यष्टि से समष्टि की और अग्रसर होता है तो उसके विचार,कार्य,दायित्व आदि का क्षैत्र भी विस्तृत हो जाता है। ऐसी स्थिति में एक सीमित स्थान पर रहते हुए भी अपने विचारों एवं भावनाओं का सम्प्रेषण वह पत्रों,लेखांे एवं भाषण आदि के माध्यम से करता है। व्यक्ति डायरी भी आत्मनिरीक्षण एवं विभिन्न तथ्यो के स्मरण हेतु लिखता है, लेकिन सार्वजनिक व्यक्तित्व की डायरियाँ भी व्यक्तित्व हित की सम्पादिका न होकर सर्वजनीन समष्टिगत हित को सम्पादित होने से, महत्वपूर्ण दस्तावेजो का रूप ले लेती है।

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The name of Gauḍapāda may not be familiar to an ordinary Indian, but one who is really interested Vedānta will surely know him. Who was Gauḍapāda? Śrī Gauḍapāda is one of the greatest Vedāntins India has seen. Gauḍapāda is the solitary philosopher known to us, who, before Śaṅkara gave a rational explanation of the Advaita Vedānta, which is the objective of the Upaniṣadic teachings; and now what is that teaching? The world is a dream. The aim of Vedānta is to hypnotise the mind which has been hypnotised into the belief that duality really exists. But the knowledge of Truth makes all the difference in his attitude towards the world. He then sees everywhere the non-dual Brahman.

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Debate about Literature being better than Literary Adaptation and vice versa has been prevalent since ages. Jhumpa Lahiri’s novel The Namesake was adapted into a film and interestingly, both the novel and the film received quite a lot of appreciation. Studying the narrative of a novel and a movie based on that novel makes it for an interesting read. Gerald Genette and Roland Barthes are two narratologists who have come up with theories which provide us with tools in order to analyze any work. The narratological analysis of these works helps the meaning to come to the fore.

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Atrocities against women are on the rise these days. Women are the victims. They face the shock and thereafter adjust themselves in the society. What we see is that violence against women is caused by structural situations and individual characteristics as well developed by non-commitment to internalized norms. In our society i.e. Indian society women have been victims of ill-treatment, humiliation, torture and exploitation. Although, it is a fact that the incidence of violence by men towards females is not identical in all groups and communities and that moral and social beliefs and family arrangements differ from group to group, yet instead of examining these groups differences and analyzing the structural and socio-ethical beliefs of these groups, we should concentrate on violence against women as perceived in general terms. What we experience in day-to-day life is that almost every woman has suffered violence at one time or another such as humiliation, exploitation or some other types of violence.

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Abstract: The investigator has been selected 40 (forty) national women players of Manipur form various sports discipline as subjects. And their age ranges was in between 25 to 35 years. the data were collected on selected criterion variable at different menstrual cycle phases such as menstruation phase, proliferative phase and secretory phase separately by using Cratty adaptation of Piers Harris self concept scale. The results of study showed that there were no significant differences that exist among different women’s monthly phases.

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Abstract:- The purpose of this study was to ascertain and modes of conducting employee training programmes and identified the challenges of planning simple mention of the training programme in the company. Now a days organisation should be earning as well as learning. Employees should share knowledge of the work. Human resource department should emphasis on learning and department programme in the view of creative and innovation. By means of good training we can enhance the performance of the employees and organisation also. Type of training, training designs is important factor of training. The skill can be enhanced by skill development programme.New joiners in organisation are having certain skill but some special required by organisation, these skill can be acquired by learning and development programme.Training is very necessary for the growth of the organisation.Men, machines and materials are the main capital of the organisation.Men are most valuable resources of the organisation.The effectiveness of organisation depends on competence of the employees.

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हम साहित्य को मात्र मनोरंजन और विलासिता की वस्तु नहीं समझते हैं। हमारी कसौटी पर वही साहित्य खरा उतरेगा जिसमें उच्च चिंतन हो, स्वीधीनता का भाव, सौन्दर्य का सार हो, सृजन की आत्मा हो, जीवन की सच्चाईयों का प्रकाश हो, जो हममें गति, संघर्ष, बेचैनी पैदा करें, सुलायें नहीं क्योंकि सोना अब मृत्यु का लक्षण है। - मुंशी प्रेमचन्द। डाॅ. सुमन राजे ने साहित्य में युग चेतना की अभिव्यक्ति पर विशेष बल दिया उनका विचार था कि साहित्य वह है तो जन कल्याणार्थ अपने भावों को उजागर करें। उनके हित का साधे जो सबको साथ लेकर चले, भेद भाव रहित अर्थात् जिसमें सम्मिलन का भाव है वही साहित्य है। साहित्य समाज के भले के साथ उसके आनन्द से भी जुड़ है परन्तु वह आनन्द तभी है जब वह समाज सापेक्ष हो। कवि संस्कृति का अग्रदूत होता है जिसमें एक उŸोजना होती है जो लोगों में सदभाव जगाती है यथार्थ का भान कराती है। उसके शब्द सोते हुए को जगाते है। साहित्य की चिरनवीनता तथा स्वतन्त्रता की समर्थक होने के कारण उनके विचार का फैलाव किसी सीमा में नहीं बंधता। हमारे विचारों को सम्प्रेषित करने का माध्यम भाषा है।

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समाज में रहने के लिए नैतिक व्यवहार के बारे में बहुत कुछ जानना पड़ता है। अपने स्वयं के प्रति, परिवार के प्रत्येक व्यक्ति के प्रति एवं वृहत् समाज के प्रति प्रत्येक के अगणित कत्र्तव्य होते हैं। इन कत्र्तव्यों का पालन करने के उद्देश्य से सबको नीतिशास्त्र के उपदेशों पर ध्यान देना चाहिए। पुस्तक पढ़कर जानने की अपेक्षा आदर्श चरित्र व्यक्ति से संसर्ग में रहकर तथा माता-पिता आदि गुरुजनों से सीखने का मूल्य अधिक होता है परन्तु फिर भी नीतिशास्त्रों का महत्व, भी सदा रहा है व रहेगा।

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The health of all peoples is fundamental to the attainment of peace and security and is dependent upon the fullest co-operation of individuals and States. Inequity and poverty are the root cause of ill health leading to malnutrition and starvation deaths in the marginalized sections of the society. The current health scenario favours the urban affluent class. There is a need to remove regional imbalances. Declining health expenditures have adversely affected health outcomes worsening the health scenario. There is a need to restructure the existing health system. The highly privatised health system has deprived the masses of even primary health care leading to out-of-pocket expenditure, which they can ill- afford. There is a need for a comprehensive legislative framework. The existing health system needs to be restructured to usher equity and social justice. This can be achieved through the promulgation of a comprehensive legislative framework, which should create conditions conducive to restoring sustainable balance in the health sector.

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श्रीलाल षुक्ल की ’कालजयी’ कृति ’राग दरबारी’ ग्रामीण संस्कृति एवं ग्राम्य परिवेष का ’कच्चा-चिट्ठा’ ही नहीं, अपितु सम्पूर्ण ’जीवन’ की ’त्रासद’ स्थिति का औपन्यासिक दस्तावेज भी है। सन् 1968 ई0 में’ रागदरबारी‘1 उपन्यास का प्रकाषन हुआ। सन् 1970 ई0 में, इस रचना के लिए ’साहित्य अकादमी पुरस्कार’ से पुरस्कृत किया गया। बाद में उनकी समग्र रचनाओं के लिए उन्हें ’ज्ञानपीठ’ पुरस्कार’ से भी पुरस्कृत किया गया।

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आदिज़ल से ही मनुष्य ज़े प्रज़्ृति से विशेष अनुदान मिलते रहे है। क्. मिटटी ज़्े प्रति मानव ज़ संबंध अत्यन्त ही पवित्र माना जाता है। ख्. प्रारंभिज़् तौर पर ज़्च्चे आवास और खेती ज़्े लिए मानव सयत अच्छी मिटटी वाले क्षेत्रों पर आश्रित रही है। पुरात्विज़् खुदाईयों में विभिन्न नदी घाटी सयताओं ज़्े बारे में ज़फी जानज़रियां मिली है। लेज़्नि प्रागैतिहासिज़् ज़ल एवं परवर्ती पाषाण युग, ताम्र पाषाण युग, लौहयुग आदि विविध ज़लों में लिखित साहित्य ज़ अभाव होने से तत्ज़लीन उपज़्रणों ज़्े आधार पर पुरातत्वज्ञ अपने अनुमान लगाते है।

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Abstract From an individual to an independent state ,the relations is being as an important tools for merge two countries wishes with each one each other for the welfare of their country. This is relation most of time causes of some events and needs so, in this two categories the events has made India to forge relation with Afghanistan with compulsion however for stop arising terrorism at present and in future . This obligatory relation sprouted from soviet invasion to America invasion met many policy hurdles and regional countries hurdles to reconstruct Afghanistan with the intention to fade away old controversies between two countries. In fact ,India imagination about its peace laden relation with Afghanistan is not aimed at gain ,counter Pakistan and show its hegemony instead of cementing relation with them for create a pro-development atmosphere in south Asia with world community .This two countries relations have been reflecting on regional integrity ,creating terror –free world and infrastructure development from conflict relation to cooperation relation with aim to fulfill their each one country needs for people happy .

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प्राचीन काल में जहां एक ओेर महिलायें सम्पत्ति के अधिकारों से वंचित थी, वहीं दूसरी ओर उन्हें स्वतन्त्र रुप से किसी भी प्रकार के रोजगार के अवसर उपलब्ध नहीं थे। भारतीय महिला का बाहरी कार्य-क्षेत्र में आना, समाज की दृष्टि में अभी कुछ दशक तक वांछनीय था, लेकिन स्वतन्त्र भारत में शिक्षा के प्रसार द्वारा वैज्ञानिक सोच ने उन्हें, रूढि़यों को तोड़कर आत्म निर्भर होकर जीने की प्रेरणा दी। भारतीय समाज में महिलाएँ एक लम्बें समय से अवमानना, यातना और शोषण का शिकार रही हैं। आज शनैः-शनैः महिलाओं को पुरूषों के जीवन में महत्वपूर्ण, प्रभावशाली और अर्थपूर्ण सहयागी भले ही माना जाने लगा है, किन्तु कुछ दशक पहले तक उनकी स्थिति दयनीय थी। विचारधाराओं, संस्थागत रीति-रीवाजों और समाज में प्रचलित प्रतिमानों ने उनके उत्पीड़न में काफी योगदान दिया है। आज भी कुछ व्यवहारिक रिवाज पनप रहे हैं, जो नारी उत्पीड़न को बढ़ावा देते हैं।

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ABSTRACT Through this paper we will try to know how people were dependable on barter system for exchange initially and over time how different commodities play the role of money i.e. medium of exchange, and what were the forces or disadvantages that lead to change in the forms of money.

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Abstract: As consumers, we buy millions of products every year. And just like us, these products have a life cycle. Any product that is introduced into a market has a shelf life, this can be overcome easily by making or purchasing new products.Older, long-established products eventually become less popular, while in contrast, the demand for new, more modern goods usually increases quite rapidly after they are launched.A product in general has a product life cycle, usually it goes through four major stages in its lifecycle. FMCG products or fast moving consumer goods have a long product life cycle, people continue to buy the product for a number of years as long as it is in stock. Over the years people have observed many products are no longer available in the markets that they go to, this usually happens when the product has completed its lifecycle.This article is an attempt focussing upon the different stages that a fast moving consumer product has to pass through and it also makes an effort to highlight the marketing strategies that can be adopted in the various stages of the life cycle of the product.

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Introduction Inflation uncertainty has important economic implications. It may affect the magnitudes of behavioral parameters, such as the responsiveness to aggregate output to price level surprises (Barro (1976); McCafferty and Driskill (1980)). It is the persistent rise in the price level. There are three types of inflation. These are demand pull, cost push and structural inflation.

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Introduction The history of industrialization in India is a complex story. When Europe in the nineteenth century was going through a phenomenal experience of industrial development India under British rule, losing much of its handicraft industries, was trying to replicate the European industrial production system. The period from 1850 to the outbreak of the First World War in 1914 witnessed the beginning of modern industrial development in India. By modern industry here we mean only an advanced production system considering the technology, organization, and government-regulation involved with it. The number of people and the amount of resource and energy that the modern industrial production system involves is greater than the previous production systems. Thus modern industrial system has reshuffled the social order, manipulated political order, and transformed the physical environment. In India industrial development began in a colonial situation. It was the colonialism for which India’s resources (minerals, crops, forest products etc.) were being siphoned off into the industrial societies, while it was the same colonial connection with Britain, one of the most industrialized nations, which introduced railways and made possible the transplantation of factory system in India.

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History of Indian Drama has originated and developed from storehouse of Sanskrit in India. Indian drama has given its incredible impact and limit to perfection since ancient times. Drama is basically a form of performing arts, where stories are enacted by the utilisation of dialogue, music, signal and dance. Traditional Indian drama, which is highly influenced by the Hindu religion, was developed by local artists and performers and is not a replication of western influx. Bharata is traditionally considered to be the father in the history of Indian drama. The history of Indian Drama is deeply rooted in Classical Sanskrit Theatre, which is the earliest existing form of drama and theatre.

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Abstract

‘भारतीय ज्ञानपीठ पुरस्कार‘ से सम्मानित, पंजाब और भारत की सर्वश्रेष्ठ साहित्यकारों में शीर्षस्थ स्थान प्राप्त करने वाली, अमृता प्रीतम बहुमुखी प्रतिभा की धनी हैं। उनका समस्त साहित्य उनके जीवन से अभिन्न रूप में जुड़ा हुआ है। चिन्तन की मौलिकता लिए हुए उनके विचार तथा समस्त मानवीयता से जुड़ा उनका मन ही उनका साहित्य है। ”सामान्यतः किसी भी साहित्यकार का या कलाकार के व्यक्तित्व को जानने के लिए हमें तीन बातों का ध्यान रखना पड़ेगा-युग चेतना, मन के संस्कार और जीवन की परिस्थितियाँ, इन्हीं तीनों उपादानों से साहित्यकार का व्यक्तित्व सँवरता है। एक और प्रभाव उनके व्यक्तित्व पर साहित्यक परम्पराओं का भी पड़ता है।”

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Abstract Online share trading has been going viral in India ever since its inception. The present study aims at recording and studying the experiences of the traders using this facility and bringing about the trends of investment and the pros and cons of various online brokerage sites. The results found are astonishing as the younger generation with good education and medium income are found to be active participants induced mainly by friends and access the facilities on a daily basis from home/office. ICICI and Sharekhan websites remain popular and investors rate them good to average in their provisions.

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Introduction Organizations have been trying to create ethical environments by implementing a number of initiatives, including codes of conduct, ethical awareness training programmes and ethics offices. However, if organisations want to truly create environments that foster ethical decisions, we must understand how those associated with accounting system perceive their work environment as well as the factors that affect these perceptions. It is believed that the atmosphere in which employees carry out their responsibilities influences whether employees will behave ethically. The integrity and ethical values of managers are the foundations for internal control, a process to provide reasonable assurance regarding the effectiveness and efficiency of operations; reliability / of financial reporting; and compliance with laws and regulations as indicated by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of Treadway Commission (COSO, 1992).

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Abstract A principle is well settled that for every action one is going to get the reaction but nowhere in any document or any scriptures is the action defined. Certain actions of man in one period are considered good and in another bad. Certain actions are considered to be legal at one time of time and illegal at another. It is this inconsistency in man to decide what is good and bad that has become the reason to have immunity from ex post facto laws. An act that was thought innocent at the time of its commission is no longer innocent today but is illegal. These changing circumstances may lead to wrongful punishment of many innocent individuals. In this context the questions arise: For what reason the ex post facto laws are justified and if not then what is the remedy available for protection against such ex post facto laws? How the Apex Court of the country the highest judicial forum and final court of appeal under the Constitution of India has played its role in providing the protection against ex post facto laws? This paper attempts to find out the answers to all these questions. This paper also investigates the theory and scope of the constitutional principle against retrospective imposition of detriment expressed in the maxim nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege. It makes an examination of key issues involved in the implementation of the principle.

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The competition in most industries and markets is highly competitive. Therefore it is of great importance for companies to ascertain the right knowledge and implement effective and efficient marketing strategies (Armstrong & Kotler 2004). The hotel industry allows no exceptions, it is very competitive and companies within this industry have to apply the right methods and know how to differentiate from each other to gain a competitive advantage (Anz.com 2007). There are a few essentials to consider when building up to and remaining a profitable and strong corporation, which will be discussed later in this report. A corporation should never stop striving for greatness. They must ensure that they maintain their position on the market with constant consideration given to how they can improve this position (Armstrong & Kotler 2004).

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Human rights are essentially rights of the children. Every child has a basic right of survival, development and protection and full participation in the rubrics of holistic development of personality. The emerging right of child to explore the opportunity of accessing educational avenues and in order to protect from all forms of exploitative activities becomes significant to study. Millions of children are neglect and malnourished due to improper care by parents and community. The miserable conditions prevail in home and in the community where in these children are exposed to child abuse and exploitation in the society at large. As a result, their right to childhood is jeopardized and such a miserable and pitiable condition ultimately affects their physical and mental health. This is a also a gross violation of basic human rights. So much so, that the child labour , which is the most vulnerable group, are exposed to these physical and psychological conditions and work on the dhaba tea stalls and restaurant and sleep and die there as a result of negligence by the society and state.

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Abstract

समकालीन रचनाकार एक ऐसे वातावरण में जी रहा है जहाँ यथार्थ को समग्र रूप में देखने के बजाय टुकड़ों में देखने का प्रचलन है. युगों तक हाशिए पर रहने के लिए विवश विविध समुदाय आज अपनी अस्मिता को रेखांकित कर रहे हैं जिससे विविध विमर्श सामने आए हैं. इस संदर्भ में डॉ. प्रतिभा मुदलियार (मैसूर) ने कहा कि ‘समकालीन हिंदी कविता में मानवाधिकारों से वंचित वर्ग ने अपनी अस्मिता कायम करने के लिए अभिव्यक्ति का शस्त्र अपनाया. हिंदी दलित विमर्श ने एक मुकाम हासिल की है. निर्मला पुतुल, ओमप्रकाश वाल्मीकि, तुलसीराम आदि साहित्यकार अपनी रचनाओं के माध्यम से भोगे हुए यथार्थ को अभिव्यक्त किया है. उनकी रचनाओं में उनकी वैचारिकता को रेखांकित किया जा सकता है. ये रचनाएँ अस्तित्व की लड़ाई की रचनाएँ हैं, विद्रोह और संघर्ष की रचनाएँ हैं. इनमें पीड़ा का रस है. घृणा के स्थान पर प्रेम को स्थापित करना की मुहीम है.’

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Abstract

Indian constitution has adopted the system of federal structure. The Indian Constitution provides the Central government with overarching powers and concentrates administrative and financial powers in its hands. There is sharing of powers and resources between the Central government and the states in a limited fashion. The experience of partition at the time of independence conditioned the Constitution makers to build in various features in the Constitution which worked against the federal principle.

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The finance minister, in his budget speech, talked about the idea of making India a cashless society, with the aim of curbing the flow of black money. But what exactly is a cashless economy? It can be defined as a situation in which the flow of cash within an economy is non-existent and all transactions have to be through electronic channels such as direct debit, credit and debit cards, electronic clearing, payment systems such as Immediate Payment Service (IMPS), National Electronic Funds Transfer and Real Time Gross Settlement in India.

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Every day, there isvibrating pieces of information through media that innocent persons, have been gunned down or hunted brutally. Blunt facts there are also with bare truth at universally, everyone is in imminent danger of terrorism. Whatever may be reasons, indeed there is none to deny that since the last half of previous century, there has been a galloping rise in terrorist and disruptive activities in country. This has modelled a serious threat to the sovereignty and integrity of India and also created a panic with a sense of insecurity in the minds of people. Terrorism not only roots suffering to large number of innocent persons, but also affects the state, its development and resources as whole. The problem has various views and basic concern as of law, order and machinery and leads to the emerging issues to the national security.

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Abstract

भारतीय समाज में होने वाले परिवर्तन एवं समाज को समझने के लिए प्रमुख भारतीय समाज शास्त्री एम0 एन0 श्री निवास का प्रमुख योगदान है। श्री निवास रेड क्लिफ ब्राउन के परम शिष्यों में से एक माने जाते हैं। श्री निवास ने सन् 1942 में रेड क्ल्फि ब्राउन के सुझाव पर मैसूर के रामपूरा गांव का अध्ययन किया था। उनके विषय थे - ”विवाह और परिवार”। उनकी यह पुस्तक ”मैरिज एण्ड फैमिली” इन मैसूर के नाम से जानी जाती है। प्रकार्यात्मक दृष्टिकोण का प्रभाव श्री निवास की पुस्तक ”रिलिजन एण्ड सोसाइटी अमंग दि कूर्गस आॅफ साऊथ इंडिया” है। श्री निवास ने इस पुस्तक में धर्म के संबंध को वृहद् सामाजिक संगठन के संदर्भ में देखा है।

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The western Rajasthan dryland regions is utmost water deficiency area of the country where there are no perennial sources, rainfall is scanty and erratic and ground water potential is low. For meeting food requirements of growing population, use of ground water resources has reached to critical devastating level and it is feared that agriculture practices may not be abandoned completely, if present level of ground water exploitation continues. Present trend of land use pattern reveals that only 2.12 area has remained as forest land and condition of these regions is miserable due to large scale deforestation and clearance of vegetated land for meeting cultivation requirements. 4.59 percent area is not available for cultivation, 4.80 percent area is barren land, 3.91 percent area is used under permanent pastures and tree groves, 18.81 percent area is wasteland, 38.35 percent area is fallow land and only 27.42 percent area is put under cultivation. The cultivated land is also not uniformly distributed among 12 dryland districts varying from 2.03 percent in Jaisalmer to 69.88 percent in Hanumangarh.