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Volume -5 Issue - 2
Month [Year] -- February [2014]
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   No of Download : 43    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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The problem of hostile witness has gained momentum in our country during the recent years and was greatly highlighted in many high-profile cases like the Best Bakery case, the Jessica Lal case and others. Thus it is the need of hour to understand the problem and its implications. Witness plays very important role in the trial Bentham has rightly stated that, witnesses are the eyes and ears of justice. Even Wadwa, J. said “witnesses are required, whether it is direct evidence or circumstantial evidence." A Supreme Court lawyer and expert in cyber law and technology, Pavan Duggal says in our country, you need to prove a case to get justice and witnesses are often the basic foundation of proof.

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   No of Download : 59    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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महात्मा गांधी-नरेगा के अन्तर्गत अधिकांशतः ग्रामीण आधारभूत संरचनाओं का पुनरोद्धार, नवीनीकरण एवं मरम्मत कार्य ही कराया जाता है। नयी उपयोगी एवं उत्पादक परिसम्पŸिायों का निर्माण बहुत कम कराया जा रहा है। नयी अधोसंरचनाओं में अधिकतर सड़क निर्माण या इन्दिरा आवास योजना के अन्तर्गत गरीबों के लिए आवासों का निर्माण कार्य ही हुआ है। फिर भी कुछ स्थानों पर बाढ़ नियन्त्रण हेतु बंधा तथा पानी की निकासी हेतु नालों का निर्माण तथा बंजर एवं गैर कृषि भूमि का विकास कार्य आदि कार्य भी हुए हैं, लेकिन वनीकरण, उद्यानीकरण, पर्यावरण संरक्षण, जल संरक्षण एवं जल संग्रहण जैसे बहुउद्देश्यीय कार्य या तो कराये ही नहीं गये या उनका प्रतिशत बहुत कम है। इस शोध पत्र में महात्मा गांधी राष्ट्रीय ग्रामीण रोजगार गारंटी अधिनियम द्वारा संचालित की जा रही परियोजनाओं का एक बृहद् एवं विस्तृत अध्ययन किया गया है जिसको निम्न शब्दों में व्यक्त किया गया है।

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   No of Download : 23    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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India was one of the first countries to establish diplomatic relations with the then European Economic Community (EEC) in the early 1960’s. The relationship between India and the EU is a crucial piece of global governance where two major democracies may show themselves capable of providing an input to reforming global governance. European union, India biggest trading partner, stands today as the world’s biggest economic bloc with a GDP of €12.894 trillion. India has a number of affinities with Europe and with European Union, not least since both, are an economic and political unions of a number of linguistically, culturally and ethnically different states. Both are unwieldy unions of just under thirty states, both are bureaucratic, both are coalition- ridden and both are slow to make decisions.

   No of Download : 61    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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अम्बेडकर ने अस्पृश्यता निवारण तथा दलितों को वैधानिक अधिकार एवं संरक्षण प्रदान किये जाने के प्रश्न पर अपने संवैधानिक विचारों से सभी को प्रभावित किया था। भारत के कोटि-कोटि दलितों, शोषितों को निर्योग्यताओं, सामाजिक उत्पीड़नों से मुक्ति दिलाना उनका लक्ष्य था। नौकरी छोड़कर अम्बेडकर ने वकालत का पेशा चुना ही इसलिये था कि वहां काम करने की आजादी थी और दलितों के वैधानिक अधिकारों की पैरवी करने की सहूलियत थी।

   No of Download : 28    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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This paper examines the use of Departmental Library resources by PG students in the Political Science Department of B.R.A. Bihar University, Muzaffarpur. The present study has been carried out through personal interviews and questionnaire tools distributed among the PG students. The findings conforms the importance of DL for PG students. This paper aims to study the use of DL by the PG students in terms of the issues faced by them, their attitude regarding library resources. This paper reveals us the case study of DL of Political Science where about 120 questionnaires are distributed among PG students finds out the purpose of using DL. Finally it highlights the major findings of the study and offers some important suggestions for overall improvement of DL.

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   No of Download : 32    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Bihar is very much adaptive region for paddy cultivation, yet it is considered as the backward region of India. Thus the objective of this paper is to analysis the paddy production in Bihar through input output analysis along with well known Cobb-Douglas production function. This paper has to try to justify the different farm size production function of paddy cultivation in Bihar.

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   No of Download : 17    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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India and China share many similarities. Earlier their policy regarding foreign trade and investment was very much restricted. During this phase both the countries suffered a lot on account of inefficiency in production and technology. China’s “open door” policy came into force in 1978 whereas in India liberalization policies came in 1991. Economy of China grew much faster than any other country with a focus on export growth and attracted FDI. India too followed it but with very slow approach. With a result today picture is very clear that China is pushing itself toward becoming the number one country in the world and stands above all other so called developed nations. While it needs a lot of efforts for India to achieve that level.

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   No of Download : 19    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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ज्ञानराशि वेद के अर्थज्ञान करने के लिए पाणिनीय व्याकरण तथा यास्कीय निरुक्त ज्योतिष्मान्‌ सूर्य की भांति यथावत्‌ प्रकाशित हैं। इनमें महर्षि पाणिनि जहां वैदिक तथा लौकिक दोनों प्रकार के शब्दों की विवेचना करते हैं वहां आचार्य यास्क की दृष्टि प्राधान्यत: वैदिक शब्दों के विवेचन पर केन्द्रित है। पाणिनि और यास्क की शब्द-चिन्तन प्रणालियों मंे कतिपय सूक्ष्म विशेषताएं दृष्टिगोचर होती हैं

   No of Download : 11    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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भारत के ही नहीं बल्कि विश्व इतिहास में हजारों वर्षों से जिन महापुरूषों के चरित्र ने जनमानस की हृदय की गहराइयों तक लगाकर प्रभावित किया है, उनमें भगवान राम का नाम मुख्य है। उनका युग चक्रवर्ती सम्राटों व साम्राज्यों का था। यह वह जमाना था जिसके बारे में बाइबल (जेनीसिस 11.1) में लिखा है कि सारे संसार में एक ही भाषा व वाणी थी। उस समय हिन्दू, मुस्लिम, ईसाई, यहूदी आदि धर्म/मत सम्प्रदाय नहीं थे और न ही आज के समान जाति-अधारित सामाजिक दीवारें। तब मनुष्य समाज के दो ही भाग थे आर्य व अनार्य। जो चरित्रवान्‌ व विद्वान न था वहीं अनार्य था। तब सारी मानव जाति की एक ही संस्कृति थी।

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   No of Download : 49    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Organizational climate is a topic of increasing interest in the area of organizational behaviour and management. It is generally defined as a psychological state strongly affected by organizational conditions, such as systems, structure and managerial behaviour. Organizational Climate is a perception of how things are in the organizational environment, which is composed of a variety of elements or dimensions. Managers are the most important assets of the organization as they have to interact with their subordinates, colleagues, top managements, customers and people at large. So, their major portion of time is utilized in working with different kinds of people in diverse climate and culture. The present research intends to understand the perception of Organizational climate among managers of private and public undertakings.

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   No of Download : 9    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Educational colleges are training centre for teacher education which is key social activity by which society reproduces the traditions and forms of life. It considers desirability and produces new traditions and forms of life preferable to realize aspiration for humanity. A considerable body of research have shown that pre-service teacher education have significant impact on early carrier teachers teaching skills and their philosophies of teaching. This paper focus light on need of emotional intelligence skills difference between emotions, impact of emotion on skills impact powerfully on human behaviour and they can easily develop through practice.

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   No of Download : 19    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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A trait is a stable quality of behaviour. Describing personality in terms of traits is better than describing it in any other means. Teachers are known as social engineers and they are an inseparable organ of a school. He plays in significant role in modifying child's behaviour. Teacher's own personality which includes his attitudes affected the behaviour pattern of children. In the simplest sense by trait we mean a mode of behaviour which is manifested in a number of life situations consistently. Trait may be defined as, ''a property within the individual that accounts for his unique but relatively stable reactions to environment''.

   No of Download : 61    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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वैश्वीकरण और तकनीकी विकास के इस युग में समाज को सशक्त करने के लिए शिक्षा एक महत्वपूर्ण साधन है। मनुष्य के सर्वांगीण विकास में शिक्षा एक महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभाती है। इसलिए ही शिक्षा की स्थिती को औेर अधिक सुदृढ़ करने हेतु भारत सरकार ने संविधान के 86वें संशोधन के तहत शिक्षा का अधिकार अधिनियम 2009 पारित किया। जो 1 अप्रैल 2010 को जम्मु एवं कश्मीर को छोड़कर समस्त भारत में लागू कर दिया गया। इस अधिनियम के अन्तर्गत 6 से 14 वर्ष की आयु के बालकों के लिए नि:शुल्क एवं अनिवार्य शिक्षा का अधिकार प्रदान करने हेतु संविधान में अनुच्छेद 21-क अन्त:स्थापित किया गया है।

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   No of Download : 42    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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The conduct of human nature does not only focus on achieving personal goals (those things a man aspires to), but also in avoiding the things that are negative and a person feels threatened by them. It is impossible to always obtain what we want (reaching a goal or running away from something), because there are moral or physical obstacles that will be in the middle. This fact is known as frustration. Frustration is a common emotion for teens. Adolescents face the stress of school, parental expectations, the need to fit in with a peer group and the desire to find their place in society. Although frustration is a normal part of growing up, learning to cope with frustration constructively is challenging for some teens. Frustration may be adolescent’s most significant obstacle in achieving their goals. Now-a-days educators are concerned not only with the student’s intellectual growth or class achievement but also with their social and emotional adjustment, defenses, anxiety, neuroticism, introversion, ego-function, self-concept, and other factors involved in personality development.

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   No of Download : 41    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Entrepreneurship is one of the most important areas for study in the discipline of Economics, Commerce Management etc. Due to large scale of the literature related to the entrepreneurship & its’ various dimensions scholars, academicians, researchers and readers find difficulty in determining quality literaturerelated to the entrepreneurship & its’ various dimensions. Considering this problem the attempt in this paper has been made to brief up the review of quality literature related to the entrepreneurship & its’ various dimensions. By going through this paper readers will have fair idea about the main focus of the quality literature related to the entrepreneurship & its’ various dimensions which is covered in this paperThe paper also aimed at giving a bibliography of quality literaturerelated to the entrepreneurship & its’ various dimensionswhich has been given in the bibliography section of the paper. Hopefully scholars, academicians, researchers and readers will be benefitted with this paper.

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   No of Download : 20    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Entrepreneurship is one of the most complicated phenomenon, which due to its multifaceted nature, becomes difficult to be explored. In this paper, causes of entrepreneurship has been described and empirically tested. The study is descriptive in nature where primary data has been used for analysis. Descriptive statistics and T Test has been used for analysis and fulfil the objectives of the study.

   No of Download : 28    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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General Anti Avoidance Rules (GAAR) is a set of general rules enacted so as to check tax avoidance. Many methods are adopted by taxpayers to reduce their tax liability such as - "Tax Evasion"; "Tax Avoidance", "Tax Mitigation" and "Tax Planning". If the method is illegal as is in the case of Tax Evasion, the taxpayer may be penalized, however in most cases the methods adopted to reduce tax liability are legal as in Tax Avoidance, and per se the tax authorities are helpless. Tax avoidance, is by and large not defined in taxing statutes. Tax avoidance is, nevertheless, the outcome of actions taken by the assessee, none of which or no combination of which is illegal or forbidden by the law as such. It is an attempt to reduce tax liability through regulating the affairs in such a way that the taxpayer pays the minimum tax imposed by the Act as opposed to the maximum. Tax Avoidance involves the legal exploitation of tax laws to one‘s own advantage and therefore it is an area of concern across the world.

   No of Download : 25    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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As we know sports is a wider term and it plays an important role in individual’s life.Games and sports not only endow us with the physical strength to fight the grim battle of life, but also fill our life with thrills and joy. They improve our digestion and keep the body fit, and give long life. Through games and sports we can make our body more beautiful and free from all kind of disease. Games keep our body alert, active, youthful and energetic. Games increase the circulation of blood, boost metabolism, burn calories and improve the respiration and digestive system. A healthy person can work hard cheerfully for a long period of time, and can face dangers boldly. Games develop in the players the spirit of self-reliance, self-confidence, justice, and fair play. They enable him to follow other virtues like discipline, honesty, integrity, loyalty and patriotism.

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   No of Download : 20    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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This paper investigates the influence of Emotional Intelligence (EI) on nursing staff performance, which working in Pt.B.D.PGI, Rohtak. Emotional Intelligence Quotient is the ability of an individual to perceive, assess and manage emotions of his own self and of other people. Emotional Intelligence as the ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one's thinking and actions. Emotional Intelligence is a measure of an individual's capability and requires tools to assess this capability. The nursing profession demands that the nurse, in the process of care, has to interact with the patients, the medical fraternity and the health care workers constantly. It is a complex process that involves nurse perception, understanding of the patient emotions and utilization of the perceptions to manage patient situations towards the goal of effective patient care.

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This paper attempts to study the Dynamic change in cartography. It’s based on some cartography books and internet web sites. Cartography is the study and practice of making maps. Combining science, aesthetics, and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively.

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   No of Download : 47    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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It is believed by the Hindu and the Islamic ideologues that Hinduism and Islam are two separate civilizations. In spite of liberal and neo liberal ideas, thriving democracy and pacing globalization, the true spirit of democracy is conspicuously eluding. Samuel Huntington (1998) has rightly caught up the pulse prevailing in the today's culture and identity conscious world in his Clash of Civilizations. He states that people were more prone to the separatist tendencies i.e. what makes them different from others in a particular context and thus not by what they were? But by what they were not (Huntington 1998:67)? The quest for triumph over the other is thus ingrained in the thought process which leads the different civilizations. So far from eroding the warring religio-cultural identities and promoting the spirit of inclusiveness, the modernity has brought about more jingoistic tendencies to the fore. The reasons behind the recent antagonisms in the space of religio-cultural are not too hard to locate. Some of them can be attributed to the contemporary developments in the sphere of new found assertion in the society, economic dynamism, and power politics and of course realpolitik. But the historical and semi historical causes also resonate. It is all the more true in the Indian context.

   No of Download : 51    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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The 21st century is characterized by unprecedented challenges and opportunities, arising from globalization, the desire for inclusive development and the imperatives of climate change. Indian business, which is today viewed globally as a responsible component of the ascendancy of India, is poised now to take on a leadership role in the challenges of our times. It is recognized the world over that integrating social, environmental and ethical responsibilities into the governance of businesses ensures their long term success, competitiveness and sustainability. The new driving force which is known as corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a movement defining broader corporate responsibilities– for the environment, for local communities, for working conditions, and for ethical practices–has gathered momentum and taken hold. CSR is oftentimes also described as the corporate “triple bottom line”–the totality of the corporation’s financial, social, and environmental performance in conducting its business. This also makes business sense as companies with effective CSR, have image of socially responsible companies, achieve sustainable growth in their operations in the long run and their products and services are preferred by the customers.

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   No of Download : 7    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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भगवती प्रसाद वाजपेयी के उपन्यासों में चित्रित सौन्दर्य भावना-बोध बड़ी स्वभाविक है। भगवती प्रसाद वाजपेयी जी के उपन्यास साहित्य में चित्रित नारी सौन्दर्य भावना-बोध अप्रतिम बन पड़ा है। इनमे आधिकांश उपन्यास नारी सौन्दर्य तथा नारी सौन्दर्य आकर्षण से प्रेरित पुरूष पे्रम मूलक है। दूसरे शब्दों में कहा जा सकता है कि उनके उपन्यास में नारी सौन्दर्य वर्णन समपृक्त है। सौन्दर्य के कारण ही पुरूष पात्र स्त्रियों की ओर आकर्षित होकर प्रेमालाप करने लगते हैं। सौन्दर्याकर्षित प्रेम सौन्दर्य को सुन्दर-सुन्दर खूबिया उनके उपन्यासों में है।

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In the nineties, India’s budgeting, fiscal deficits, and balance of payments problems kick started the government’s urge to unlock the huge investments chained in the state owned enterprises (SOEs). The major thrust for Disinvestment Policy in India came through the Industrial Policy Statement 1991.The policy stated that the government would disinvest part of their equities in selected PSEs. However it did not stake any cap or limit on the extent of disinvestment. It also did not restrict disinvestment to any class of investors. The main objective was to improve overall performance of the PSEs. In eighties the model of privatization/divestment was initiated by Margaret Thatcher in UK and implemented by other countries including Germany (Unified), and other socialist countries.

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Learning starts long before a child is able to talk and look at books even they shake their first baby rattle. The vast majority of parents want to do the best for their children, but some struggle to do so. This is often because they don’t understand the important role they can play or know how best to support their children’s development. When parents have the knowledge, skills and confidence to provide the kind of relationship and experiences that children need to learn and develop, it makes a real difference to children’s futures.

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   No of Download : 26    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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E- banking (or Internet banking) allows customers to conduct financial transactions on a secure website operated by their retail or virtual bank, credit union or building society. In today's demanding world, everybody needs instant banking solutions for a better lifestyle. In the current scenario, almost every bank in India has the internet banking facility. E-banking or internet banking made things much easier for the people and saves lot of time. Researches show that impact of Internet banking on cost savings, revenue growth and increased customer satisfaction on Industry is tremendous and can be a potential tool for building a sound strategy. However, it has raised many public policy issues before the banking regulators and government agencies. Interestingly, reliable and systematic information on the scope of Internet banking in Indian context is still not sufficient, particularly what it means to the consumers and the bankers. This study aims at evaluating services quality of online banking in Delhi city, Capital of India. This paper mainly characterize, online banking services of SBI Bank one the leading public sector bank . A structured questionnaire is administered to various target groups. Researcher mainly wants to investigate the 3 important elements of online banking i.e. Efficiency ,Reliability, and Privacy of customer information.

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   No of Download : 106    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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With the increasing scale of trade, need was felt for quality based, informative and reliable accounting standards. Hence, the ASB formulates Accounting Standards for India giving due consideration to International Accounting Standards. But now, trade has to give global level crossing all jurisdictions and regions. The integration of global economy demands a set of accounting standards which are generally accepted all over the world for facilitating the countries doing trade in a more simplified way of accounting. International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) are such set of accounting standards as have been prepared to cope up with the increasing demands of accounting at global level. More and more countries are moving to IFRSs due to their capability to facilitate economic growth in international or global market.

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Foreign direct investment (FDI) is direct investment by a company in production located in another country either by buying a company in the country or by expanding operations of an existing business in the country. Why FDI? To take advantage of cheaper wages in the country. Special investment privileges such as tax exemptions offered by the country. To gain tariff-free access to the markets of the country or the region.

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   No of Download : 17    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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The services sector is one of the fastest-growing sectors in the Indian economy. It has been integral to India’s overall liberalisation and structural reform programme, which was initiated in the 1980s and gained momentum after 1991. Domestic demand for services has increased as incomes have risen, triggering the expansion of industries such as banking, education, and telecommunications. Exports have also increased rapidly, led by information technology and business process outsourcing (IT-BPO). India’s ability to offer low-cost, high-quality IT-BPO services has made it a world leader in this industry. India’s government has supported the growth of service industries through a mix of deregulation, liberalization, and incentive programs. This paper provides an overview of the Indian services sector. It shows that services is the fastest growing sector in India, contributing significantly to GDP, GDP growth, employment, trade and investment. Over the years significance of services sector has increased. Its share in GDP is near to 60 per cent which reflects its importance in our economy. This paper also raises issues and challenges which are need to be addressed with regard to this sector.

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This study has been conducted to identify the relationship between tribes and developmental agencies working in Wayanad. The communication of developmental messages and their receptivity among the target audience depend upon the nature of relationship between the development agencies and tribes. The communication becomes smooth and worthy only if the relationship between them is cordial. The study chiefly focused on the most vulnerable sects of Adivasi community of Wayanad district – namely Paniya, Adiya and Kattunaika. These three sects are the most backward in the district. They are the least interactive tribes with the mainstream society. They are shy and introvert in nature. As for livelihood Paniya and Adiya are agricultural labourers. Kattunaika are traditionally forest dependents. Since their dependency on forest is less rewarding today, they also turned to be daily wage labourers. Six questions have been included in the questionnaire to assess the relationship between the tribes and development agents. Chi-square test is administered to find the individual difference in the responses among the three sects.

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With growing significance of Socially Responsible Investments among various investors and emergence of Private Equity as an attractive investment alternative, the paper investigates the difference between financial and operating efficiency of Private Equity backed companies and Non Private Equity backed companies practicing ESG in their businesses. The analysis is based upon Descriptive Analysis, Correlation Analysis, Independent Samples T Test and Regression Analysis. The findings reveal that mixed performance whereESG Private Equity backed firms underperforming during certain time periods, outperforming during some other time horizons, and demonstrating similar performance at times in terms of risks and returns.

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It has always been difficult for the companies to deal with crisis that has obsessed them. As well established organizations begin to look seriously at this whole new field of management, the Crisis Managing Companies face significant challenges in maturing and scaling to sustainability. In this paper we will look at the role of Crisis Management in empowering the organizations to deal with the inherent risks involved in their industry in a much matured way; in making the organizations prepared, for any crisis that may arise, well in advance; the benefits of Crisis Management thus far and the various limitations in the Crisis management scheme which hamper in serving the aforesaid objectives.

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In this study, a study has been done on the returns of Contrarian Strategy for short term in Indian equity market. The main finding is that the returns from Contrarian strategy have been significantly different from the overall market returns. In Finance literature, the returns from pre-defined rules of making investments in equity have been an interesting topic for research. Several researchers have proved abnormal returns can be earned by implementing such trading rules. Returns from different trading rules have been an important part of the study of finance literature. Although The EMH( Efficient Market Hypothesis ) neglects any unusual returns from trading strategies which are based on the past information related to stock prices and financials, many researchers have proved otherwise and shown abnormal returns by implementing simple trading rules.

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It may seem that there’s nothing you can do about stress. The bills won’t stop coming, there will never be more hours in the day and your career and family responsibilities will always be demanding. But you have more control than you might think. Most of experiments and researches have shown that depressing mental thoughts is hazardous and go towards sickness. They may be either directly or indirectly in the form of psychological problems such as stress, depression etc., that often results in various cardiac problems. So it’s our duty to tell the way to deal with stress. Yoga is best therapy to avoid stress. From Yoga, we teach how to survive normal life, healthy life and natural life.

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कालचक्र की गति समाज को परिवर्तित करती चलती है । सामाजिक मान्यतायें – विचार एवं दर्शन स्वतः नवीनता ग्रहण कर लेते हैं । समय जैसे- जैसे निकलता है परिवर्तन होता चला जाता है । परिवर्तन व्यक्ति के साथ उसकी मानसिकता में भी आता है । यह परिवर्तन समय से भी आता है और परिवेश से भी । कोहरे में कैद रंग गोविन्द मिश्र का ऐसा उपन्यास है जो समय और परिवेश दोनों से आये परिवर्तनों को लक्षित करता है ।

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In depth study and critical analysis of the following HRD and training aspects of an organization. a) Human Resource Development: - Human Resource Development (HRD) is the frameworks for helping employees develop their personal and organizational skills, knowledge, and abilities. Human Resource Development includes

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“Corporate Social Responsibility is the continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the local community and society at large”. According to the World Business Council, the underlying principles of CSR is that companies are expected to behave ethically and contributed to the economic development while development improving the lives of their workforce, their community and society at large. Today, CSR is an integral part of business strategy every company is responsible for treating its employees well. Preserving the environment developing sound corporate governance, supporting philanthropy, fostering human rights, respecting cultural differences and helping to promote fair trade, among other things. “Corporate Social Responsibility is the continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the local community and society at large”. According to the World Business Council, the underlying principles of CSR is that companies are expected to behave ethically and contributed to the economic development while development improving the lives of their workforce, their community and society at large. Today, CSR is an integral part of business strategy every company is responsible for treating its employees well. Preserving the environment developing sound corporate governance, supporting philanthropy, fostering human rights, respecting cultural differences and helping to promote fair trade, among other things.

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The intensification of the global financial crisis has made the current economic and financial environment a very difficult time for the world economy, the global financial system and for central banks. The fall out of the current global financial crisis is mind-boggling for central banks and financial regulatory systems. Therefore this paper attempts to identify the causes of the current crisis accurately in order to find appropriate immediate crisis resolution measures and mechanisms ; then understand the differences among countries on how they are being impacted; and, finally, bring out the longer term implications for monetary policy and financial regulatory mechanisms. It analyses the causes, consequences of global financial crisis on Indian Economy and its remedies.

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Samuel Beckett (1906-89) and Harold Pinter (1930-2008) are of the two major playwrights of the Theatre of the Absurd, in twentieth century. Both the playwrights emerged out of the disillusionment of the post World War II, wrote on similar themes, took conventions of traditional drama to pieces, won Nobel prize for their contribution to the world of theatre, and above all, made an indelible impression on the canvas of playwriting to be followed by a number of writers in the times to come.

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Reflecting on the complex and important issues raised in the paper by Luis Aviles in this issue of the journal,1 I would like to discuss an example of how a recent shift in the epidemiological approaches used by researchers at an international agency may both mirror the underlying assumptions and reinforce the practice of neocolonialism. As experienced by many low income countries today, "neocolonialism" refers to the replacement of colonial powers' direct political and military control with indirect economic control by multilateral international lending agencies, bilateral donors (often including the former colonizers), and private, corporate investors from affluent countries. Underlying this new order are the basic free market assumptions that aggregate economic growth is the ultimate measure of societal development, and that optimal growth can only be attained when market forces are unimpeded by policies designed to redistribute wealth.

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आज का लेखक वर्ग, बनाम शिक्षक वर्ग में नारी सशक्तिकरण पर चर्चाए-परिचर्चाए की जा रही हैं प्रतिष्ठित शैक्षणिक संस्थानों द्वारा समय-समय पर सेमिनारों (संगोष्ठियो) का आयोजन किया जा रहा है नारी व्यक्तित्व को निखारने की पुरजोर वकालत की जा रही है नारी को प्रेरित करने के लिए तरह-तरह की योजनाएं संचालित करने की सलाह दी जा रही हे। उत्साहवर्धन हेतू सम्मानसूचक प्रमाण पत्र, पदवी आदि देने की मुहिम चलाई जा रही हैं, ताकि नारी अपने जीवन की बागडोर किसी अन्य के हाथों में न दे। अपनी इच्छानुसार जिन्दगी को मुकाम तक ले जा सके। इक ऐसा दौर लाकर खड़ा कर सके कि वहां उसे कोई इशारा करने की भी हिम्मत न कर सके प्रताडि़त करना तो दूर। कुछ हद तक यह प्रयास सफल भी हुए हैं यह इन्हीं प्रयासों का परिणाम है

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Growth is less likely to be sustainable with high and/ or growing inequalities and inequality can hamper growth. The need for more inclusive growth has now been recognized in many countries. In India the government programs and strategies since independence have not seriously addressed the exclusion problem despite following the approach of growth with equity. The experience of economic reforms also indicates that while there have been improvement in economic growth, foreign exchange, export growth, IT revolution etc the income distribution has been unequal and only some section of the population benefited more from higher growth and prosperity.

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August Wilson, the celebrated author of the Pittsburgh Cycle, has always opposed the assimilation of African Americans into the mainstream American society. Wilson has used his plays as a medium to uphold the African American culture. This article explores his play, Fences, and it unwinds how he employs the father-son conflicts as a strategy to prevent the assimilation of a young black man into the mainstream American society. The play revolves around a father-son conflict which springs from the son’s desire to play football in whites’ team. David Marriot in the book, On Black Men posits on the problematic relationship between fathers and their sons: “[. . .] the mark that the black father leaves,” is “ a mark that is both ineffaceable and irremediable”(96). Marriot observes further: “Typed, in the wider culture as the cause of, and cure for, black men’s ‘failure,’ his father’s apparently lost and untellable, life is the story that the son must find and narrate if he is to begin to understand how, and why, blackness has come to represent an inheritable fault”(96).

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The contemporary integration of computer and com¬munication technologies is facilitating the trend towards the virtual workplace. As the growth in the tech-nological education accelerates, higher educational institutions face new challenges to cope up with their new organizational structure. These include under¬standing the emergent environment system for higher education, the changing social responsibility of the edu¬cationist, and the dynamic requirements of the knowl¬edge seeker for innovative solutions. It is, indeed a newer perspective for the higher educational institu¬tions to manage the complexity of the new social and education organization that is exacerbated by the increasing creative appetite for disbanding convention¬al teaching and research, and re-conceptualizing them *i ji unusual talent to inspire teamwork among contrib¬utors of knowledge with diverse expertise in education-innovation.

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We are all well aware that women were treated as mere slaves in the past, as they were and they are considered as weaker sex. Men used to keep them under thumb. They were not given any kind of freedom. They were kept within the four walls of the house as cattle. They were denied of all rights. Now the days are changed. Women are getting educated. They work as professionals equal to men. They are contributing to the economy of the Nation. Has this changed the condition of women..? Certainly not. Hence it is our responsibility is to think where are we lagging behind and what measures can be taken to improve the status of women.

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Today, customer relationship strategy is emerging as one of the most important components of corporate strategy. A well-executed customer relationship strategy can result in a number of quantitative benefits including greater ability to up-sell and cross-sell, improved customer retention and reduced cost of service. In addition, successful companies will also develop reference able customers, foster customer forgiveness and create relationship equity, a situation where the customer and the company are both deriving high levels of value from the relationship. Together, these quantitative and qualitative benefits contribute to shareholder value. The old adage goes that "the customer is always right", which is the reason so many companies today spend millions of dollars on technology systems to get closer to them. Yet for many customers, their experience is an ever-greater remoteness from the companies who say they are there to serve them. The information they receive is untargeted, it doesn't speak to them directly and bears little relationship to what they need, want or might aspire to. This paper focus on the market applications provided by large CRM vendors.

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Capital flows creates a positive and significant impact on the growth and development of a country when the magnitude of those flows is high, steady and stable. The international capital flows, whether in the form of direct or portfolio investment has a potential to contribute in the economic growth and development of an economy. A vigorous debate on globalisation process highlights both its advantages and disadvantages. Supporters of globalisation suggest that opening up to global capital markets can make crucial investment funds available at a lower cost, enhance risk sharing, besides ensuring transfer of technology. Opponents suggest that global capital flows are volatile and move for reasons unrelated to fundamentals causing financial disruption and economic volatility. Decoupling from the global capital market through the use of capital controls can help protect a country from temperamental financial markets. it is very Important to assess and analyse the historical trends and pattern of private capital flows across the boundaries of the different countries in the world. The present study attempts to explain the historical trends of private capital inflows (CAPF).

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किसी भी देश की शासन व्यवस्था को सुचारू रूप से चलाने के लिए पर्याप्त धन की आवश्यकता होती है। इसके लिए शासक आय के साधन तलाश करता है। उत्तर मुगलकालीन शासकों के समय में विभिन्न प्रकार के कर लगाये जाते थे जिनसे शासन को पर्याप्त आय होती थी। ओरंगजेब को एक सुसंगठित साम्राज्य प्राप्त हुआ था। कोष में अपर सम्पत्ति थी किन्तु साम्राज्य विस्तार तथा निरन्तर युद्धों में उसने पर्याप्त धन व्यय किया। उसने उस धन की पूर्ति के लिए आय के नवीनतम साधनों को खोजने के बजाय अपनी धार्मिक हठवादिता के कारण अनेक पुराने प्रचलित करों को भी बन्द कर दिया परिणामस्वरूप शाही कोष रिक्त हो गया तथा भविष्य में उसे तथा उसके उत्तराधिकारियों को आर्थिक कठिनाईयों का निरन्तर सामना करना पड़ा। उत्तर मुगल काल में शाही आय के प्रमुख स्त्रोत निम्न हैं-

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निराला का जन्म महिषा दल में माध्र शुक्ल 11, संवत् 1953 तदनुसार 21 फरवरी 1896 ई0 मंगलवार को हुआ। उनके बचपन का नाम सुर्जकुमार था। उनकी माता का देहान्त इनके 2 ) वर्ष की आयु में ही हो गया था। 11 वर्ष की आयु में इनका विवाह मनोहरा देवी के साथ सम्पन्न हो गया। इनकी दो संताने- रामकृष्ण पुत्र 1914 में, पुत्री सरोज 1917 का जन्म हुआ।

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कबीर के जन्म के विषय में विद्वान विभिन्न मत ह ै।परन्तु सभी विद्वान 1398 ई0 का े इनके जन्मवर्ष मानने में एक मत ह ुए इसी प्रकार जन्म स्थान पर भी मतैक्य नही ं था। क्या ेंकि वे लहर तारा नामक तालाब के किनारे पड़े पाए गये आ ैर इसकी पुष्टि कबीर की निम्न उक्तियों से हा ेती ह ै।

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अलगाव या विमुखता (विरुचिता) का चर्मोत्कर्ष स्वरूप आत्महत्या है। यह शब्द दो शब्दों से मिलकर बना है- आत्म $ हत्या अर्थात् स्वयं की हत्या स्वयं के द्वारा। प्रख्यात फ्रांसीसी समाजशास्त्री इमाइल दुर्खीम के शब्दों में- ‘‘आत्महत्या का शब्द मृत्यु की उन समस्त घटनाओं की ओर संकेत करता है जो स्वयं उस व्यक्ति के वांछित या अवांछित कार्यों का प्रत्यक्ष अथवा अप्रत्यक्ष फल होता है जिसके परिणाम को वह जानता है।’’‘‘1’’

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India being predominantly an agriculture economy whose two-third population resides in the rural area needed some reform for the rural population for the Indian economy to grow. In pre-independent India, cooperatives were among the major institutions providing finance to the rural population, as there were few rural branches of Commercial Banks. The All India Rural Credit Survey Committee in 1952 observed that a large share of the credit requirements of rural households particularly the poor, came from traditional sources such as relatives, traders, landlords and moneylenders (NABARD). It was felt that credit need of the rural sector can not be met by the cooperatives alone, there was a wave of nationalization of banks and priority sector lending by scheduled commercial banks. It called for financial inclusion for which a committee was set up. Although, the multi-agency approach was adopted for enhancing rural credit, the Banking Commission in the year 1972, observed that despite the massive expansion of branch network of commercial banks in the rural

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Performance of a fund largely depends on the performances of the equities in the Basket. Portfolio insurance with “PUT OPTION” is a tool to minimize the loss of portfolio with unexpected movement in price of equities in the portfolio by paying premium on put option. For a portfolio insurance to exist, sum of price paid for equities and the premium paid on “PUT OPTION” in the basket should be less than or equal to the sum of the price of the equities and the total value of put option in the basket at a given date in future.

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The aim of the study was to assess the effect of weight reduction on some selected anthropometrical parameters i.e., body mass index (BMI), body fat percent (BF %) and lean body mass (LBM). The subjects for the study were twenty two boxers, ranging in the age group between 18 – 26 years. The data was collected at the time of the Pre London Olympic training camp held at NetajiSubas National Institute of Sports, Patiala, India, fromMarch, 2012 to July, 2012. The selected parameters such as age, body weight, standing height and skinfold measurements (Durnin and Wormsley, 1974) were taken one week after the day of joining the camp (March, 2012). The body weights of all the subjects were obtained again three weeks prior(July, 2012) to the London Olympic Games 2012. For the purpose of the present study the subjects who reduced their body weight more than one percent were selected for the further study and the following

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Development of a nation is very much dependent on the development of rural people. Today, the real problem faced by every developing country like India is the poverty. Poverty is a term with which many developing countries are suffering. Even after more than 50 years of planning, various poverty alleviation programs, official estimates shows that around 26.1 percent of total population still lives below the poverty line in India. The financial requirement is one of the basic needs of the poor rural people of the society for their socio-economic upliftment. Amongst the poor the most disadvantageous group are the women and they constitutes almost half of the population of India.

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This study focuses on the level of job satisfaction and job stress of employees working in banks. The idea presented in the paper is the role of job satisfaction in influencing Job stress. Data was collected from 101 respondents of SBI Bank- Uttarakhand. Statistical tools were used to analyze the data. Findings suggest that the Job satisfaction is quiet passable in public sector banks due to no fear of low job security, good salary and timings of workings. Future research with varied sample size covering public as well private sector banks could be directed and similar study should be conducted in other regions of the country. There is a scarcity of empirical studies on job stress in banking sector. An attempt has been made to fill this gap by this study of Job stress among employees of public sector banks.

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It is well known that the secondary market for debt is not as efficient as the stock markets in India and efforts have been made to develop the secondary debt market, through the introduction of both regulatory measures and innovative products. Notwithstanding with the deregulation process initiated by RBI and several innovation, the Indian money market is not free from rigidities which are hampering the growth of market. The secondary debt market in India is practically non-existent. This paper argues that

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पाणिनीय व्याकरण के तीन पक्ष हैं। प्रक्रिया, परिष्कार और दर्शन । प्रक्रिया से हमारा अभिप्राय प्रकृति प्रत्यय विभाग पुरस्सर आगम,आदेश, अतिदेश, वर्णविकार,वर्णविपर्यय करने के बाद उपलब्ध साधु शब्द राशि के ज्ञान से है। पाणिनीय प्रक्रियाओं में तिङन्त प्रक्रिया का महत्वपूर्ण स्थान है। इसका महत्व वाक्य निर्माण में भी देखा जा सकता है। प्रत्येक वाक्य में तिङन्त (क्रियापद) की आकाङ्क्षा होती है। इस दृष्टि से

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A STUDY OF WATER SHED DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMS IN KARNATAKA. पाणिनीय प्रक्रियाओं में तिङन्त प्रक्रिया का महत्वपूर्ण स्थान है। इसका महत्व वाक्य निर्माण में भी देखा जा सकता है। प्रत्येक वाक्य में तिङन्त (क्रियापद) की आकाङ्क्षा होती है। इस दृष्टि से

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Mort, Weerawardena & Carnegie (2002), defines social entrepreneurship as a multidimensional construct involving the expression of entrepreneurially virtuous behaviour to achieve the social mission, a coherent unity of purpose and action in the face of moral complexity, the ability to recognize social value creating opportunities and key decision making characteristics of innovativeness, proactiveness and risk- taking. This is to say that that social entrepreneurship is a process of creating value by combining resources in a new ways, which are intended to explore and exploit opportunities to create

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आज भारत जब विकास के मार्ग पर इतना अग्रसर हो चुका है कि उसकी गिनती विश्व के महाशक्तियों की श्रेणी में होने लगी है तब भी वेदों में ऐसा क्या है, जिसे हम आज भी आवश्यक समझते हैं, पढ़ने पर जोर देते हैं। वेदों की इन बातों पर यहाँ दृष्टिपात करते हैं-

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This paper examines the execution of National mid-day meal programme for school- going children with special reference to Haryana. In order to analysis the levels of satisfaction of this programme, an empirical study has been carried out in some of selected government and schools, situated in six blocks of selected six districts of Haryana. On the basis of findings of this study which includes the results of t-tests which indicates different levels of satisfaction for the respondents, belong to different schools, situated in relatively more and less developed regions of Haryana. The paper also touches various problematic areas of this national programme, which urgently required a considerable reforms so that the programme may render its flaw-less services for achieving its desired results.

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The history of slavery in India is complicated due to the absence of the factors which relate to the definition, ideology and religious perception. We find fifteen kinds of slaves mentioned in Narada Smriti. Manu ‘s list included only seven. But generally five kinds of slaves were like those captured in war, debt slaves, losers in gambling and self sold due to poverty. We notice an increase in the number of slaves in both categories whether engaged in domestic services or in agricultural production.The institution of slavery became more viable when the Muslim inroads multiplied their number into lakhs. These slaves had to perform many duties, some of which mentioned in Hemachandras- Trisastisalaka Purusacharita. The transformation of agricultural labourers was the most notable development of the period.

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   No of Download : 44    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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इतिहास, ध्र्म और जाति को लेकर मेरे कुछ ‘प्रश्न’ और जिज्ञासाएं है जिनको मैं आपसे बाँटना चाहती हूँ। ये मेरे अध्ययन मनन की उपज है जिन्हें मेरे समय समाज ने पैदा किया है। वैसे तो ‘बौ( ध्र्म’ और ‘जाति व्यवस्था’ ये दोनों विषय या तो साध्ु, सन्त और महागुरू के बोलने के लायक हैं या पिफर किसी राजनीतिज्ञ, समाज सुधरक व क्रांतिकारी आदि के मनमापिफक इस्तेमाल के। मेरे जैसे अकादमिकों का इस पर हक-अध्किार नहीं माना जाता रहा है। अकादमिक जगत में भी यह विषय अछूत की हैसियत रखते हैं क्योंकि अकादमिक लोगों के लेखे यह अध्ययनेतर विषय हैं, ध्र्म से उन्हें अपफीम की गंध् आती है और उसका कोई सामाजिक भूमिक महत्ता हो भी सकती है, यह उनकी सोच से परे है। जाति उनके हिसाब से मध्यकाल व सामंती दौर का अवशेष ;पफासिलद्ध है जो समय के साथ स्वतः ही नष्ट हो जायेगा।

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भूमिका हमारे सांस्कृतिक विकास का गुप्त रहस्य अनुसंधान में निहित है। अनुसंधान नये सत्यों की खोज द्वारा अज्ञानता के क्षेत्रो को समाप्त कर देता है और वे सत्य हमें कार्य करने की श्रेष्ठतर विधियां एवं उत्तमतर परिणाम प्रदान करते है। अनुसंधान प्रक्रिया नियन्त्रित एवं सुव्यवस्थित होती है। सत्य सूचना को एकत्रित कर तर्कसंगत विश्लेषण द्वारा आरम्भ में ही उठाए गए सुनियोजित प्रश्नों के उत्तर प्राप्त करना ही अनुसंधान है। अनिवार्य रूप से समस्या का स्पष्टीकरण कुछ स्पष्ट प्रश्नों द्वारा करना होता है। प्रश्न जितने सार्थक और विशिष्ट होगें, शोध का स्तर उतना ही ऊंचा उठेगा। उसके बाद उन प्रश्नों के उत्तरों की खोज में अनुशासनिक ढंग से सभी पक्षों के विषय में समुचित विधि द्वारा आवश्यक तथा एकत्रित करके तथा सभी प्रकार से सोच-विचार करके उनका वैध व विश्वसनीय उत्तर पाना ही अनुसंधान की सफलता है। शिक्षा विषयक अनुसंधान का यंहा अर्थ है - वे सब प्रयास जो राज्यकोष या वैयक्तिक या जन संस्थाओं द्वारा किए जाते है जिनसे शैक्षिक विधियों व आम शैक्षिक कार्यो में सुधार हो, जिनमें उच्च स्तर के वैज्ञानिक अनुसंधान व विद्यालय प्रणाली तथा शैक्षिक विधियों से सम्बन्धित अधिक साधारण परीक्षण हो।

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   No of Download : 8    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
Abstract

हिन्दू समाज एक बहु मंजली इमारत की तरह है जिसके अन्दर प्रवेष करने के लिए न कोई सीढी है और न बाहर आने के लिए कोई द्वार है। समाज एक ओर जहां विष्वास करता है कि जड पदार्थो में भी भगवान है, वहीं दूसरी और वह यह भी कहा जा सकता है कि कुछ लोग, जो उसी के अपनें अंग हैं स्पर्ष किये जानें योग्य नहीं है। ‘यह मेरी दृढ प्रतिज्ञा है कि मै उन षोषित लोगों की सेवा में अपना जीवन बलिदान कर दू जिनमें मैें पैदा हुआ था, जिन लोगों के बीच रह कर मैं बडा हुआ था जिनमें मैं रह रहा हॅू। मैं अपनी कर्तव्य परायणता से एक इंच भी नहीं हटूंगा और न ही मै उस आलोचना की चिन्ता करूंगा जो मेरे प्रतिद्वंद्वी कर रह हैं। ‘मैं घृणा करता हॅू अन्याय से, अत्याचार से, बनावटी गौरव व वैभव से, बकवास से व्यर्थ के विवाद से, और मेरी घृणा की लपेट में वे सभी व्यक्ति आते हैं जो इन सब बातों से ग्रस्त हैं उन्होनें सपष्ट किया कि वे समाज के श्रेष्ठ वर्ग द्वारा दलित वर्ग के प्रति किये जा रहे अत्याचारो को समाप्त करनें के लिए दृढ संकल्प हैं।

   No of Download : 44    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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India’s favourite beverage was tea always, but recent times have seen a change in this preference as more and more people like to drink coffee. The attitude of consumers towards coffee has changed as drinking coffee has now become a social statement. In South India, drinking coffee is a family habit especially the filter coffee but, in north India it is not so. Hence, there is a lot of scope in North India where the people can be tapped by coffee producers as well as coffee retail outlets, cafes and coffee shops. This paper focuses on studying the attitude of consumers towards coffee in terms of preference and reasons for increase in consumption of coffee. This is done by conducting a survey in Delhi. The aim is to find out how these changes in attitude can be used to further increase the domestic consumption of coffee and create more business for various stakeholders present in the Coffee Industry such as coffee producers, people involved in processing of coffee such as roasting, cafe and coffee tasters.

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   No of Download : 45    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Success of any training programme largely depends upon proper identification of training needs. Training needs are felt by the managers when they discover/perceive deviation between standard performance and actual performance of its employees. Nestle follows the philosophy to establish and build a strong performance driven culture with greater accountability and responsibility at all levels. This paper is an attempt to study how the development of competency among employees through training need identification and evaluation of training programme at Nestle. In order to take a reasonable sample size and not to disturb the functioning of the organization, a sample size of reasonable strength of the Company has been taken in order to arrive at the present practices of training in the Company.

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   No of Download : 36    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Foreign-exchange reserves (also called forex reserves or FX reserves) are assets held by central banks and monetary authorities, usually in different reserve currencies, mostly the United States dollar, and to a lesser extent the Euro, the Pound sterling, and the Japanese yen, and used to back its liabilities, e.g., the local currency issued, and the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank, by the government or financial institutions.

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There has been much discussion in recent years on environmental degradation issues and society’s concerns for sustainable development. Environmental threats are alarming government and citizens alike. India, in particular, is suffering from high levels of air pollution, poor water quality, rapidly diminishing landfill space, dismal garbage disposal avenues, high levels of noise pollution and falling levels of groundwater. Consumers are becoming highly aware of the impact of their consumption on environment and are more ready and willing to respond to the appeals based on green issues.“Green issues” , hence, attract consumers’ attention and reflects their environmental concern through modified buying behavior. Emerging markets for environment products, services and techniques present promising opportunities for the marketer. Marketers are employing environment friendly tactics and strategies to take into consideration environmentalism and green issues. They have responded to consumers’ awareness by designing and commercializing greener strategies, allowing them to project a responsible image in the marketplace.

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The English word ‘brand’ comes from an Old Norwegian word BRAN DR. It means ‘to burn’. At that time, the word ‘brand’ was actually used to identify animals from a one herd owner (Aaker, 2003) “A product is something that is made in a factory, a brand is something that is bought by a customer. A product can be copied by a competitor, a brand is unique. A product can be quickly outdated, a successful brand is timeless” (Quiston, 2004, p 345). “A name, term, sign, symbol or design, or a combination of these, that is intended to identify the goods and services of one business or group of businesses and to differen-tiate them from those of competitors” (Bennett 1995)

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   No of Download : 28    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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In studies on literary culture, the gaze of the scholar is often fixed on the members of political ruling class who patronized the poets and played critical role in the promotion of a literary culture. This research paper is a departure from such an intellectual practice and tries to highlight the role of mercantile elite in promoting brajbhasha literary culture in both roles, as patron and sometime as poet themselves. In the following paragraphs, with the help of Banarsidas and Dev ‘s literary career and their literary oeuvre, we would try to disentangle the web of mercantile patronage to brajbhasha literary culture and its cultural and political implications.

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A new democratic politics will be concerned that new media and computer theologies be used to serve the interests of the people and not corporate elites. A democratic politics will strive to see that broadcast media and computers are used to inform and enlighten individual rather than to manipulate them., A democratic politics will teach individuals how to use the new technologies, to articulate their own experiences and interests, and to promote democratic debate and diversity, allowing a full range of voices and ideas to become part of the cyber democracy of the future. Now more than ever, public debate over the use of new technologies is of utmost importance to the future of democracy. Who will control the media and technologies of the future, and debates over the public’s access to media, media accountability and responsibility, media funding and regulation, and what kinds of culture are best for cultivating individual freedom, democracy, and human happiness and well-being will become increasingly important in the future.

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From the Olympics to Cricket match, sports bring us together as a society. No matter your race, gender, age, ethnicity, or religion, sports is our common bond. In times of racism and hatred, the Indian society use sports as a crutch. We can always lean on professional and even collegiate and high school sports for comfort. Professional sports has for what seems like forever had a strangle hold on the Indian society. It seems almost every day of the week there is a sport that we as Indian can watch and enjoy. Everyday of the week we can watch Hockey or cricket.

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Agriculture is the backbone of Indian Economy and important way for the survival of Farmers, while near about 70% persons is surviving with the agriculture activities. The income from the agriculture is not enough for survival and a number of farmers are bound to suicide in a number of regions in the country. Less income as well as traditional ways and techniques along with the less support from Government are responsible for this situation of farmers. One of the major problem is also connected with same issue that the farmers are not having proper means of disposing off the residues from crops. The legislature have enacted general laws for the protection of environment and these laws are also known sectorial laws also. The effect of these laws are common for all kind of acts prohibited under environmental laws. Hence the farmers are under the purview of these laws and punishments, even getting nothing as reward or monitory benefits while practicing burning of crop residue.