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Volume -5 Issue - 1
Month [Year] -- January [2014]
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   No of Download : 30    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Sandeep kumar* & Rajbir Singh

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   No of Download : 211    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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शिक्षण एक सामाजिक प्रक्रिया है जिस पर प्रत्येक देश की शासन प्रणाली, सामाजिक दर्शन तथा मूल्यों एवं संस्कृति का प्रभाव पड़ता रहता है। जिस देश की जैसी शासन प्रणाली तथा दार्शनिक विचार धारा होगी, वहाँ की शिक्षण प्रक्रिया पर वैसा ही प्रभाव पड़ेगा। इस प्रक्रिया के वैज्ञानिक एवं कलात्मक दोनों पक्ष हैं। शिक्षण में जब हम उसकी समस्त प्रक्रियाओं का आधार मनोविज्ञान है, का तर्क देते हैं तब यह विज्ञान हो जाता है और जब हम शिक्षण को मार्गदर्शन करने वाला, छात्रों को उत्सुक एवं जागृत बनाने वाला कहते हंै तब यह कलात्मक रूप लेने लगता है। इस प्रकार हम कह सकते हैं कि शिक्षण की प्रकृति कलात्मक एवं वैज्ञानिक दोनों तरह की होती है इन दोनों प्रकृति का मुख्य उ६ेश्य छात्रों के व्यवहारों में वांछित परिवर्तन लाने के उ६ेश्य से विभिन्न प्रकार की क्रियाएँ सम्पादित करना होता है और इन क्रियाओं के फलस्वरूप शिक्षण और सीखने वाली परिस्थितियों में सम्बन्ध स्थापित हो जाता है।

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   No of Download : 30    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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The Supreme Court has interpreted Constitutional provisions relating to job reservation in a series of judicial decisions, starting with Balaji vs. State of Mysore , and in Indra Sawhney vs. Union of India , the Court has upheld the validity of reservation for socially backward classes especially in recruitment and promotion. At the same time, the Supreme Court has imposed safeguards against the violation of the principle of equality and merit and the dilution of administrative efficiency .

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   No of Download : 15    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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If we go through the history of English language we will find that this language once arose in the Anglo –Saxon kingdom of Scotland,slowly when GreatBritain from 17th century to 20th century spread widely its British empire it has been widely propagated around the world.Now with the dominance of American media &technology English has become the leading language of international discourse &lingua franca of many countries.Historically, English originated from the fusion of closely related dialects, now collectively termed Old English, which were brought to the eastern coast of Great Britain by Germanic settlers (Anglo-Saxons) by the 5th century

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   No of Download : 31    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Foreign direct investment (FDI) plays an important role in Indian economic growth dynamics. There are several examples of the benefits of FDI in India. FDI in the retail sector can expand markets by reducing transaction and transformation costs of business through adoption of advanced supply chain and benefit to the consumers and suppliers (farmers). The result is also net gains in employment at the aggregate level. Author has been given forth a few conceptual issues and analysis of qualitative information, data and stylized facts. Author takes following methods - Foreign direct investment in India, surveys retail sector growth forecasts in India, highlights components raised by opponents of liberalising FDI in retail trade, provides arguments in favour of allowing foreign competition in this sector, and outlines challenges for organised retail in India.

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   No of Download : 16    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Knowledge yields power. It is one of competitive advantages’ firms can bank upon. Knowledge productivity differentiates a successful organization from a non successful one. Knowledge management includes finding the sources of knowledge within the organizations and devising ways to harness them. It is the ability to create and use knowledge to achieve organizational objectives. Keywords: Knowledge management, organization, information

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   No of Download : 72    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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The challenges of HR managers today is to recognise talent and nurture the same carefully and achieve significant productivity gains over a period of time. The enterprise is nothing but people. The role of HR manager is shifting from a protector and screener to the planner and change agent. In present day competitive worlds, highly trained and committed employees are often a firm’s best bet. In this research paper i will be discuss about the challenges faced by the organizations and HR professionals. HR professionals can help an organization select and train employees for emerging roles. Only people who are involved and intelligent can make a difference. In future, the principal issues will be how the HRM function can transform its outlook from a traditional to a modern one. Increasing globalization and technological revolution have been identified as two primary factors that create a new competitive landscape.

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Education deals mainly with an individual and thus the changes occurring in such institutions affect an individual’s position. The traditional courses of study such as : Anviksiki, Trayi, Varta, and Dandaniti faced a setback during early medieval north India. The study of Ayurveda, Arthsastra and vocational subjects also decline in the phase. The study of medical science was already prohibited for a Brahmana and the studies of economics slowly became unpopular among them. On the contrary, the subjects like literature, philosophy and astronomy became more popular. The study of Vedanga, Grammer and astrology gained ascendancy during the period under survey. Many technological courses such as vastuvidhya were also taught. Some scholars like Hemchandra and Kshemdra acquired knowledge in a large variety subjects were polymaths of the age. Besides other subjects in the Buddhist system, tantric studies were also introduced.

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   No of Download : 38    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Mahatma Gandhi Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) aims at enhancing the livelihood security to the people in rural areas by guarantying hundred days and wages employment in a financial year. This is considered as a pet program of the U.P.A. Government. This program yielded good results in compare to the earlier wage employment program. To conclude, through there are some shortcomings i.e., corruption, late issue of job cards, delay of wage payment, is really a boon for the rural people. If it is implemented transparently it enhances the standard of living of the rural people.

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   No of Download : 175    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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We all know that online marketing is the most cost effective and result-oriented medium of marketing today. Considering this fact, Social media allows customers and prospects to communicate directly to the brand irrespective of the fact where the consumers are located. It’s a fact that social media is the easiest to justify in terms of ROI as compared to other marketing strategies. It’s not just individuals that are populating social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter – companies, products and even bands are realizing these mediums are an excellent way to gain exposure over a vast audience.

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   No of Download : 24    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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The great thing is we don't have to change banks to take advantage of the Internet bank capabilities. Most banks offer online banking, giving us complete access to our bank accounts, our loans, and even to bill payments. This means we can log on, move money around, pay bills including loans and mortgages, and that is all. There is no need to stop at the bank to move money from savings to checking. We might even be able to order cheques online. If we really want to save time we can even get our bank statements through Internet bank, doing away with all of that paper that stacks up in filing cabinet.

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   No of Download : 16    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Present study mainly aims at exploring the various factors that influences female buying behavior and purchase decision branded and unbranded apparel in India and to identify the impact of brand building used by the sellers on consumer perception. This study consist apparel retailing market. The organized apparel retailing market in India has immense potential for growth. The impact of international as well domestic media on the attire habits is responsible for more and more Indians frequenting organized retail outlets for superior apparel brands than in the past.

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   No of Download : 48    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Financial Inclusion has become a buzzword internationally – even in developed financial markets there are concerns about those excluded from the banking system. The aim of financial inclusion is to expand the coverage of the formal financial system in the country, and over the past decade, this has also become a key objective for emerging economies. The biggest challenge for next decade or more to banks in India is to capture thebanking business of over 40% population of this country of over 120 billion people. In India, financial inclusion first featured in 2005, when it was introduced by K C Chakraborthy, the chairman of Indian Bank. Mangalam Village became the first village in India where all households were provided banking facilities.

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   No of Download : 22    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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The traditional system of administration of criminal justice by punishing the offender and thereby restoring peace in the community has undergone a major change in the contemporary world. Many countries at present adopted the principles called restoration and restitution in their criminal justice system. It is not only the prosecution and the accused has a major play towards the dispensation of justice in criminal cases, the victim is the most important party, he/she is to be remedied. The disposal of criminal cases in courts with the prevailing procedures of our times is losing relevance in the present day society, since because the crime rate is increasing at exorbitant level inspite of the new techniques evolved and applied by the criminal justice agencies in handling the crimes and criminals. The best alternative would be the application of Restorative justice principles in criminal proceedings so as to make it more effective and functional. The victims’ interest would be properly addressed under this concept of restoration.

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   No of Download : 14    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Mobile telecommunication is a communication network which doesn't depend on any physical connection between two communication entities and have flexibility to be mobile during communication. Customer satisfaction is defined as "the number of customers, or percentage of total customers, whose reported experience with a firm, its products, or its services (ratings) exceeds specified satisfaction goals. Mobile telecommunication is a rapidly growing sector in India. It is penetrating all sections of people viz. rich and common people. Now a days everybody depending on mobile phone for communication, banking, internet etc..Mobile service providers providing various facilities to attract the customers along with 2G,3G,4G technology. KEYWORDS: Cellular services, Customer satisfaction, Marketing, Mobile service providers.

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   No of Download : 33    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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The distribution of money in the world looks like a pyramid. A few people earn a lot at the top of the pyramid and a large basis is poor at the bottom of the pyramid. The new approach developed by C.K. Prahalad shows that these poor people represent a significant market opportunity for companies. They are subsistence consumers with unmet needs. Besides, by serving this segment in a proper way, companies can become a significant lever of poverty alleviation. According to the report of the World Resource Institute (2007)there are 4 billion people at the base of the economic pyramid (BOP)—all those with incomes below $3,000 per year (PPP 2002), in local purchasing power. This segment covers different economic situations.

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   No of Download : 43    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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With an eye on the environment and social issues, many businesses are no longer solely focused on turning a profit. A top priority for many organizations today is corporate social responsibility, which focuses on how businesses deal with their environmental, social and economic impacts In recent years, increasing attention has been given to the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), defined in terms of the responsiveness of businesses to stakeholders’ legal, ethical, social and environmental expectations. CSR has generally been a pragmatic response to consumer and civil society pressures.

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   No of Download : 24    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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India presents interesting case for the study of economy since India's economic growth over the past two decades has been one of the world's fastest growing countries. India has managed to reduce poverty, inequality, disparity and sustained the significance growth of GDP, however, it is largest abode of world's poor and it is far behind its main competitors in East Asia, particularly China. Moreover, a gulf is growing between India's richer and poorer states. Acceleration development requires improving the delivering of public services and concerted efforts to sustain the growth as well as to augment the productivity, efficiency and effectiveness in production systems and marketing structure. India has been under foreign rule for the long period, and therefore, its administrators and political system is based on British model of development and governance, however, it has made progress in its various sectors of economy over the period. In this Research paper, a review of historical background of Indian Economy and Indian Economic development is given to understand the dynamics of Indian Economy.

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   No of Download : 8    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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वर्तमान भारतीय परिप्रेक्ष्य में राजनीतिक दलों की कार्य प्रणाली से सम्पूर्ण जनमानस अपने आप को ठगा एवं असहाय महसूस कर रहा है। इसमें अधिक दयनीय दशा उस आम जनता की है, जो सुविधा विहीन हैं तथा देश की कुल आय में 20 प्रतिशत हिस्सेदारी रखता है। आम चुनाव में हर बार यह वर्ग नये राजनीतिक दल की सरकार चुनकर अपनी समस्याओं से निजात पाना चाहता है परन्तु जनमानस का यह प्रयास वही ढाक के तीन पात सिद्ध होता है।

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   No of Download : 9    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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This article provides methods and procedures to understand the unseen comprehension passages especially for students of undergraduate and post graduate levels who have a paper on English Language. English language teaching will be very helpful for students who prepare for competitive examinations and it can be useful for teachers who set question papers on comprehension passages as well. Comprehension is a process, which includes three things mainly they are:–

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   No of Download : 23    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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भारतीय राजनीति बदलाव के एक नए दौर से गुजर रही है | अपनी प्रौढ़ावस्था में पहुँच चुका भारतीय लोकतंत्र भी इस बदलाव से एक नयी शक्ल , एक नया आकार लेता हुआ प्रतीत हो रहा है | इसे यह नया रूप प्रदान करने में एक नया ही शिल्पकार का उदय हुआ है जिसका नाम है "आम आदमी पार्टी" या आप | आम आदमी पार्टी , सामाजिक कार्यकर्ता अरविन्द केजरीवाल एवं अन्ना हजारे के लोकपाल आन्दोलन से जुड़े बहुत से सहयोगियों द्वारा गठित एक भारतीय राजनीतिक दल है | इसके गठन की आधिकारिक घोषणा 26 नवम्बर 2012 को भारतीय संविधान की 63वीं वर्ष गांठ पर जंतर मंतर , नयी दिल्ली मे की गयी थी |1

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   No of Download : 10    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Business is the propensity of mind to take the risk with confidence to achieve a Pre-determined or industrial objective.. So it is the function of creating something new, organizing and coordinating it and undertaking risk and handling economic uncertainty with confidence, entrepreneurs organizes the business by using various traits and tactics like leadership, innovation, decision making and managerial caliber so as to run their business profitably. Women entrepreneurship refer to a group of women who initiate organize and run their business enterprises by taking risks and handle various types of economic uncertainties. Now women are seen not only as teachers in schools or colleges but have proven themselves in military, defense pharmaceuticals, science, aeronautics and even in space exploration.

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In the past, physical education was viewed as only the pursuit of activities like swimming, jumping, torturing of implements fighting and hunting etc. which, that were considered as survival insurance-activities. With the passage of time these activities become a source of entertainment, display of skill, strength and achievement. Along the progress of man in his widening environment came the establishment of various institutions of society such as home, school, religious places and government etc. With the assumed, different roles and outlook.

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   No of Download : 27    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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The application of psychological principles to the improvement of performance in the sports has received greater attention in these days . there are certain accepted psychological principles which have to be applied so that the athletes and players are able to show their best in their performance. Eventually stress may manifest itself in the form of physical disease or mental breakdown. Yoga has a lot to offer as we approach the 21st century. It gives us means to compliment medical technology with a system of health care that addresses the problems of the mind and spirit, as well as those of the body.

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   No of Download : 14    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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The quest for quality has been the characteristic of entire history of human civilization. It has been the driving force behind all human efforts. Quality being an enigmatic concept and having complexity to define and measure is tied to an interrelationship between stated goals and actual practices. Although the idea of quality is very subjective phenomena yet it has helped ultimately all the stakeholders to retain, maintain and sustain the defined standards and perform for excellence in the field of higher education particularly. What is required at this stage is a collaborative endeavor of all the stakeholders to address the quality concerns in higher education. The present paper shall explore the various concerns pertaining to quality in higher education and its plausible solutions as well, as it is indeed imperative to ascertain whether the basic objectives will be achieved by quality assurance mechanism for higher education in the country.

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   No of Download : 13    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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प्रारमिभक हिन्दी में आलोचना लेखन का कार्य केवल गध रचनाकारों का माना जाता था। कवियों का कर्म केवल कविता करना, सौन्दर्य या विरह के साथ अपनी कविता के मेल जोल को समाज तक पहुँचाना। यही नही लौकिक व निराकार को मावनीक व सार्थकता का रूप प्रदान कर पाठकों को संदेश देना मात्र कविता के माध्यम से ही उनका मुख्य कार्य माना जाता था। कवि को पध रचना, गीत या शायरी का अथाह प्रयोग व लेखन में काव्य शास्त्र का सफल उपयोग करने का ही अधिकार था, आलोचना के दायरे से अलग रखा जाता था। हिन्दी साहित्य में साहितियक आलोचना के सैद्धानितक आधार की पृष्ठभूमि भारतीय काव्यशास्त्र के रूप में संस्कृत परम्परा में अत्यन्त सुदृढ़ है। इस परम्परा का मूल ग्रन्थ भरत-मुनि द्वारा रचित 'नाटयशास्त्र' है जिसमें इस सिद्धान्त की विवेचना का सुदृढ़ स्वरूप हमें मिलता है।

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   No of Download : 73    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Lac is unique gift of nature to the mankind. Lac is a natural, biodegradable, non-toxic, odorless, tasteless, hard resin and non-injurious to health. Lac is used in manufacture of glazed paper, printing and water proofing inks, lac bangles, dry mounting tissue paper, dental plates and optical frames. It is also used as a coat for metal ware to prevent tarnishing and for finishing various products such as playing cards, oil cloth and linoleum and for preserving archeological and zoological specimen. Lac cultivation is simple, free from high technology and does not need large investment.. Sustained attention on the lac cultivation leads to the high sustained production and steady returns achieved by adopting improved methods of cultivation. Lac insects are cultured on such host trees which are capable of growing in wastelands.

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   No of Download : 27    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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निःसन्देह भारत में उद्योगों का वितरण विषम है यहां पर कुछ ऐसे क्षेत्र हैं , जहां पर विभिन्न प्रकार के उद्योग धंधे विकसित हो गये हैं, तो कुछ क्षेत्रों में उद्योग धन्धों का नितान्त अभाव। उ0प्र0 का फर्रूखाबाद, कन्नौज, गुरसहायगंज क्षेत्र तम्बाकू बीडी उद्योग धंधों के लिए विख्यात हैं यहां पर घर-घर में बीडी बनाने का कार्य किया जाता है। इसका प्रमुख कारण यह है कि यहां पर निर्धन बस्तियों की बहुलता है तथा लघु कुटीर उद्योग धंधों की कमी के कारण गरीब परिवार रोजी-रोटी के मूल प्रश्न को हल करने के लिए अपने घरों में ठेके पर बीडियाँ बनाकर ठेकेदारों को बेच देते हैं या फिर उद्योगपतियों के गोदामों पर पहुंचा देते हैं।

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   No of Download : 15    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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The concept of corporate social responsibility is becoming integral to effective corporate brand management. This study analyses consumers’ perceptions of corporate socially responsible behavior and its impact on company’s brand image by exploring different dimensions of CSR. Data was collected from consumers to analyze consumers' degree of interest, extent of readiness to support CSR initiatives and its impact on their perception about the company. The findings here suggest a strong impact of company’s philanthropic communication on consumers' perception in forming company’s image and presents evidence to subdue economic issues’ communication. The implications of this study are relevant to companies for strengthening their social responsibility associations with the consumers by exploiting CSR as marketing and promotion tool.

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   No of Download : 21    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Since the LPG in 1991, India had made a breakthroughdevelopment and growth all around. Indian stock market has remarkably witnessed this growth story.Indian stock market went through various changes over a period of time; in terms of growth in volume, growth in number of IPOs, growth in number of bourses as well as growth of various financial products like forwards, futures, options, swaps etc. It also gave rise to increased trading volume with increased volatility. Tremendous amount of FIIs have been coming since that time and Indian market has seen many ups and downs; many bull and bean runs, many scams, frauds and embezzlements. Various participants in market let it be in stock market, in currency market, in commodity market or in bond market have suffered as well as ripped the fruits of this growth and decline story so far.

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   No of Download : 18    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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The people of India suffer from a high burden of illness particularly in comparison to the rest of the world notable diseases which affect quality of life and human development. Malaria is one of the major public health problems in India. At the time of independence, estimated annual incidence of malaria in the country was 75 million cases with 0.8 million deaths. Thus economic loss was enormous & estimated to run into Hundreds Crores of Rupees every year. Considering this, Govt. of India launched a National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) in April 1953 as centrally sponsored scheme aimed mainly at reduction of morbidity and mortality, eradication of Malaria diseases, improvement of environment, control of population and improving the health in urban and rural areas.

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   No of Download : 13    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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Service sector forms an important branch of an economy today. Not only in the developed economies but also in the underdeveloped and developing economies its importance cannot be under estimated. Activities like, banking, trade, communication, education, health etc. have to form the basis for development for any economy. Not only that these are also the ends of what a modern economy seeks to achieve. After independence, India embarked on a growth pattern dependent on development of heavy industries. But, unlike the paths of development observed in other countries like: Britain, Germany, China etc. where service sector developed after the blooming of secondary sector, India went directly to Service led growth especially after 1991 reforms. This has given rise to some concern in some circles about whether India has “Skipped a stage of growth”.

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The idea that India suffered deindustrialization during the 19th century has a long pedigree. The image of skilled weavers thrown back on the soil was a powerful metaphor for the economic stagnation which Indian nationalists believed was brought on by British rule. However, whether and why deindustrialization actually happened in India remains open to debate. Quantitative evidence on the overall level of economic activity in 18th and 19th century India is scant, let alone evidence on its breakdown between agriculture, industry, and services. Most deindustrialization assessments rely on very sparse employment and output data. Price data are more plentiful, and, as a consequence, many economists in their paper used newly compiled evidence on relative prices to offer a new price-dual assessment of deindustrialization in 18th and 19th century India.

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T.S. Eliot is a poet and critic and about the relationship between his poetic and critical faculties he himself has made an ingenuous confession. In ‘The Music of Poetry’ he has observed, “the critical writings of poets owe a great deal of their interest to the fact that at the back of the poet's mind, if not as his ostensible purpose, he is always trying to defend the kind of poetry he is writing, or to formulate the kind of poetry he practices.” He frequently insists that his ‘criticism’ should be seen ‘in relation to his creative writing.’ Even F.R. Leavis holds that Eliot has rare mind and he has solved his own problems as a critic and poet. “His influence has been more effective in that, he is a critic as well as a poet and his criticism and his poetry reinforce each other.” His criticism expresses ideals and his poetry presents the realities and there is always a perfect harmony between the two.

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This study is an attempt to understand the concept of entrepreneurship, its key aspects, and key traits of successful entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship has become a much sought after option today. An entrepreneur is a person who performs various functions. He recognizes the market potential of a product of a product or a service. He is the driving force behind the growth and success of his enterprise. Concepts of intrapreneurship, micropreneurship, E-cells have been discussed in brief.

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The term social refers to characteristics of living organisms. It always refers to the interaction of organisms with other organisms and their colletive coexistence, irrespective of whether they are aware of it or not. The term infrastructure is the basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society or the services and facilities necessary to function. Social infrastructure refers to the facilities and mechanisms that ensure education, health care community development, income distribution, employment and social welfare. My study is based on the present status of population, education, health, care, community development, income distribution, employment and social welfare in Haryana.

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The purpose of the study was to find out effect of sequence of firing a shot exercises on shooting performance of high school girls. To achieve this purpose of the study carried out in the Shri. Shiv Chaitanya Academy Bora Kalan, Gurgaon .Forty (40) girls age 14 to17 years were randomly assigned two groups Experimental group and Control group consists of 20 students. Pre-test and post test with the use Rifle shooting accuracy test battery for the assessment of the following variables Firing within time and Firing own time. Experimental group has received an eight week training of sequence of firing a shot exercises. Control group did not participate in any of the training programme. After the experimental period is over the subjects of all the groups were post tested with the Rifle Shooting Accuracy Test Battery. The data were analyses primarily by the descriptive statistics and ‘t’ value was used. The significance was set at 0.05 levels. Results shooting performance of sequence of firing a shot exercises helped to improve the performance of Firing Own time Performance (0.43*,p<0.50)and Result shooting performance of sequence of firing a shot exercises helped to improve the performance of Firing within Time Shooting performance (1.52*<0.05). But control group did not show any changes in all aspects.

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Stress management starts with identifying the sources of stress in your life. Sources of stress aren’t always obvious, and it’s all too easy to overlook your own stress-inducing thoughts, feelings, and behaviours. Stress is the physical and mental response of the body to demands made upon it. It is the result of our reaction to outside events, not necessarily the events themselves.

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Economic geography has taken a variety of approaches to many different subject matters, including but not limited to the location of industries, economies of agglomeration , transportation, international trade, economic development, real estate, gentrification, ethnic economies, gendered economies, core-periphery theory, the economics of urban form, the relationship between the environment and the economy (tying into a long history of geographers studying culture-environment interaction), and globalization.

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‘Transformation’ Means “A marked change in form, nature, or appearance”, it also means The state of being transformed and a marked change, as in appearance or character, usually for the better . Education is the principal method through which societies transmit knowledge from one generation to another, learn how to develop and accumulate knowledge, preserve certain values and transform others, and introduce social and cultural change in the form of new, non-conventional ideas and values and attitudes, and non-traditional ways of thinking. It is through education that people learn how to become more socially and politically conscious, and how to increase their ability to acquire and use knowledge to improve the quality of their lives.

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Microfinance refers to a variety of financial services that target low-income clients, particularly women. Since the clients of Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) have lower incomes and often have limited access to other financial services, microfinance products tend to be for smaller monetary amounts than traditional financial services.

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Digitization continues to be a key growth driver for the Indian Media and Entertainment industry and this trend was even more pronounced in 2010. Film studios saw greater adoption of digital prints over physical and it was the first time in India that digital music sales surpassed that of physical unit sales. DTH achieved a robust growth of 75 percent in the net subscriber base over 2009, by adding 12 million subscribers . The government is also attempting to gradually shift towards increased digitization and addressability by making it mandatory to convert to digital addressable infrastructure by March 31, 2015 . With the regulatory push on digitization, increasing mobile and broadband penetration and ongoing 3G rollouts, the market for digital distribution platforms is only expected to grow.

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The paper delineates the challenges faced by HRM and its role effectiveness in the present day scenario particularly in the Indian context. The challenges identified are Vision Penetration, Building Organisational Capabilities Internal Environment, Job Design and Organisational Culture, Change in Industrial Relations,Increasing Size of Workforce, Equalitarian Social System, Changing Psycho-Social System, Satisfaction of Higher Level Needs, Technological Advances, Computerised Information System and Management of Human Relations. Whatever might be the change in any field, the prime element is “human beings”, who should not be brushed aside as normal or simple factors.The discussion clearly brings out the fact that the whole transformation on HRM practices portrays a travel from idealism to realism and from the ‘employees” ascending the status of “co-owners” to match the galloping changes in the sphere of people management practices per forced by the objective of harnessing the best talent, a scarce component commanding an unparalleled demand.

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“In childhood, a woman should be under her father’s control, in youth under her husband’s and when her husband is dead, under her sons, she should not have independence….” (Buhler, 1992). The term “Feminism” comes from French and has its origin from the Latin word ‘femina’ meaning ‘woman’, and thereby, it refers to the advocacy of woman’s rights seeking to remove restrictions that discriminate against women. It relates to the belief that women should have the same social, economic and political rights as men. Feminism has often focused upon what is absent rather than what is present. The word feminist refers to the person who advocates or practices feminism and it assumes a political position. Female is the matter of biology and feminine is a set of culturally defined characteristics.

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The available literature support the facts that economies with better banking intermediation grows faster while inefficient banking intermediation bear the risk of growth deficit. The present paper1 support this fact by examine the critical condition of Credit Deposit Ratio in Bihar and opined that poor deployment of credit by largest group of financial intermediaries of Indian Economy i.e. commercial banks has reduced the opportunities to grow, resulting into poor capital formation, lesser productivity, lower per capita income, and most important loss of conducive environment.

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The concept of National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) is a major initiative of Government of India (GoI) towards poverty reduction and income generation among rural poor families. This step assumes special significance when viewed in the context of World Bank statement that more than 30 percent of India earns an income of less than $1 (Rs. 46.30) a day. However, those familiar with the socio-economic structure of Indian economy believe that this percentage is likely to be higher among the rural poor.

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   No of Download : 30    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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This impact assessment comes as an important intervention in the wake of National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005 (NREGA) which is being implemented all over India from 1st April 2008. The idea of the assessment is also premised on the widely held belief that NREGA is foundationally capable of transforming the rural lives by improving living conditions, increasing sustainable agrarian activities and wholesome economic support. The Act stipulates that wages will be equal for men and women. It is also committed to ensuring that at least 33% of the workers shall be women.

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‘दरियापंथ’ के प्रवर्तक दरिया साहब हैं। इस पंथ की स्थापना भी उनके द्वारा ही की गई थी, जिसकी चर्चा हम पहले कर चुके हैं। दरियापंथी मुख्यतः दो प्रकार के होते हैं- पहला ‘साधु’ और दूसरा ‘गृहस्थ’। ‘साधु अपने घर-परिवार से मुक्त होकर मठ में निवास करते हैं। ये सर मुड़ाकर नंगे सिर रहते हैं तथा सफेद धोती का प्रयोग करते हैं। ये किसी प्रकार का टीका, कंठी, माला आदि धारण नहीं करते। ‘गृहस्थ’ अपने परिवार के साथ अपने घर में रहते हैं। ये जन सामान्य से किसी रूप में अलग नहीं होते। पंथ में हिन्दू या मुसलमान दोनों ही सम्मिलित हो सकते हैं; इसमें जाति या धर्म जैसी कोई पाबंदी नहीं है।

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भाषा मात्र विश्लेषणे पाणिनेः योगदानम् प्राचीन कालेन अदृष्यते। साहित्ये भोजपुरी साहित्यदृष्ट्या वाग्विश्रलेषणे पाणिनी व्याकरणस्य महत्वं प्राय सर्वे विद्वास समान रूपेण स्वीकुर्वन्ति। समस्त शोधनिबन्धे भोजपुरी वाचि विख्यातानां शब्दानां पाणिनीरीत्या प्रकृति प्रत्यानां निर्देशनेन एक तथ्यान्वेषणं कृत वर्तते। भोजपुरी साहित्य न केवलम विख्यात अपितु विशालम् वर्तते। यद् भोजपुरी साहित्यदृष्ट्या वाग्विश्रलेषणे पाणिनी व्याकरणस्य का भूमिका भवितुं शक्रुोति? भोजपुरी साहित्ये पाणिनी व्याकरण वाग्विश्रलेषण एका पद्वति सड्केतिता वर्तते।

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हरियाणा राज्य भारत का छोटा सा प्रदेश है। यह 44212 वर्ग कि0मी0 में फैला हुआ है। इसके पूर्व में उत्तर प्रदेश, उत्तर पश्चिम में पंजाब, उत्तर में हिमाचल प्रदेश, और दक्षिण व पश्चिम में राजस्थान स्थित है। हरियाणा में इक्कीस जिले हैं व इसकी राजधानी चण्डीगढ़ है। नवम्बर 1966 को हरियाणा अस्तित्व में आया। कृषि प्रधान राज्य हरियाणा ने 1966 के बाद आर्थिक, सामाजिक और सांस्कृतिक क्षेत्रों में अभूतपूर्व प्रगति की है। आज यह देश के विकसित प्रान्तों में से एक है। हरित क्रांति का अग्रदूत यह राज्य सूचना क्रान्ति के इस दौर में किसी भी मायने में कम नहीं है। चाहे प्रिन्ट मीडिया हो या इलैक्ट्रानिक मीडिया प्रत्येक क्षेत्र में नए आयाम सामने आ रहे हैं।

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In our daily routine activities, we have to do tasks of varied nature, and successful completion on these tasks is highly dependent on our ability to make accurate shift from one task to another. Indirectly, it is an individual’s switching ability that determines his/her success/failure on tasks. Individual differences exist on this ability. Some individuals may switch easily and make less errors, while others have difficulty in switching, so, as a result, they have more costs (i.e. in terms of more time and more error). Strategies used for reducing switch costs may have implications in educational curriculum, in industry and in our day to day activities also.

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Service Quality (SQ) = Customer’s Perception (P) – Customer’s Expectations (E) Service Quality Definition:- It is very difficult if not impossible to arrive at a universal definition of what constitute quality. . According to ( Parasuraman et al, 1985) Quality is an elusive and indistinct construct and (Crosby, 1979) it is often construed to mean imprecise adjectives like goodness, or luxury or shininess or weight.

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“अर्थगत्यर्थ: शब्दप्रयोग:, अर्थं प्रत्याययिष्यामीति शब्द: प्रयुज्यते” उमहाभाष्य के इस कथनानुसार भाषा में शब्द का प्रयोग अर्थावबोध के लिए होता है। इसलिए भाषा के सन्दर्भ में शब्द की महत्ता आर्थिक दृष्टिकोण से है तथा उदात्त, अनुदात्त एवं स्वरित आदि स्वर अर्थप्रत्यायन में महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका का निर्वाह करते हैं, अत: संस्कृत भाषा में स्वर की महत्ता के विषय में संदेहलेशमात्र का भी अवसर नही है।

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Mobile banking is a system that allows customers of a financial institution to conduct a number of financial transactions through a mobile device such as a mobile phone or personal digital assistant. Mobile banking differs from mobile payments, which involve the use of a mobile device to pay for goods or services either at the point of sale or remotely, analogously to the use of a debit or credit card to effect an EFTPOS payment.

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Students and instructors in the field, usually called "comparatists," have traditionally been proficient in several languages and acquainted with the literary traditions, literary criticism, and major literary texts of those languages. Some of the newer sub-fields, however, are more influenced by critical theory and literary theory, stressing theoretical acumen and the ability to consider different types of art concurrently, over high linguistic competence. The interdisciplinary nature of the field means that comparatists typically exhibit some acquaintance with translation studies, sociology, critical theory, cultural studies, religious studies, and history. As a result, comparative literature programs within universities may be designed by scholars drawn from several such departments. This eclecticism has led critics (from within and without) to charge that Comparative Literature is insufficiently well-defined, or that comparatists too easily fall into dilettantism, because the scope of their work is, of necessity, broad.

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The present research aims to study the children and parents behaviour with respect to exposure of television advertisement. 300 subjects were taken from the different areas of Punjab (Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Phagwara & Amritsar). Various aspects of buying behaviour & television viewing pattern were taken into consideration. The analysis was done on the basis of correlation & t-test, the result shows that television advertising put huge impact on children’s buying behaviour. The other aspects of behaviour were also discussed in the paper.

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“Cooperative Federalism is a political slogan, not a criterion of Constitutional Validity or power. It records a result reached as the result of a State and the commonwealth legislating within the powers conferred on them by the Constitution.” M.C. Heigh J.

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This paper explores the philosophical foundations of untouchability through an analysis of the phenomenology of “touch”. The sense of touch is unique in many ways; one such is the essential relation between touch and “untouched”. Drawing on both Indian and western traditions, the paper begins by analyzing the meaning of touch and then goes on to explore some meanings of “untouchable”. It then concludes by pointing out the importance of untouchability within the Brahmin tradition and attempts to understand the process of supplementation which makes untouchability a positive virtue for the Brahmins and a negative fact for the Dalit’s.

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“Consumer behavior is the study of individuals, groups, or organizations and the processes they use to select, secure, and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs and the impacts that these processes have on the consumer and society. “ (Kuester, 2012)” Internet makes life simple and innovative. People are doing business online and trade has become more easy and fast due to this. Internet provides new ways to promote business. Website becomes the essence of online business as to show their services and products. Internet gathers all competitors and consumers in one place. It brings new lane to promote, advertise products and services in market (Barry Silverstein, 2002, p. 3).

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Indian economy had experienced major policy changes in early 1990s. The new economic reform, popularly known as, Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization (LPG model) aimed at making the Indian economy as fastest growing economy and globally competitive. The series of reforms undertaken with respect to industrial sector, trade as well as financial sector aimed at making the economy more efficient. With the onset of reforms to liberalize the Indian economy in July of 1991, a new chapter has dawned for India and her billion plus population. This period of economic transition has had a tremendous impact on the overall economic development of almost all major sectors of the economy, and its effects over the last decade can hardly be overlooked. Besides, it also marks the advent of the real integration of the Indian economy into the global economy.

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The usage of Social Media is increasing exponentially to satisfy the social needs of internet users, at the same time it has also increased the opportunities for corporate to market their products & services in a personalized way. The past record shows that social media has contributed significantly in changing the perception of customers in buying process. Organizations can‘t ignore the growing importance of social networking sites on the buying behavior of customers.

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Vijay Tendulkar is among the few modern Indian dramatists who wrote successful plays on major social problems in India. The main theme which recurs time and again in his plays is the theme of gender discrimination. This is to reflect on Tendulkar’s way of demonstrating how Society adds to the depreciation of women as human being and deprives them of most of human rights, relative to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the Individual. He shows how women are exploited, tortured and victimised. Women are made to suffer throughout their life, is also one of the central concerns of the paper. An attempt has also been made to display the unfair treatment of women that compel them to tolerate all types of violence: Physical, mental and emotional.

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The purpose of this research paper is to examine the consequences of absenteeism. Instead of asking what causes absenteeism we want to identify the causal effects of absenteeism; that is what effect absenteeism has on the individual worker, adjacent workers, and the work group society. Our goal is to provide a better theoretical understanding of these questions.

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This paper critically examines the performance of agricultural commodity futures trading in India in terms of growth in volume and value of selected agricultural commodities that traded at National Commodity Derivative Index (NCDEX) from 2005 to 2011. There has been a consensus that the rampant growth in futures trading is responsible for the increasing commodity prices during 2009, however the findings of this paper reveals that there is no significant growth of agricultural commodity trading that responsible for the rise in agricultural commodity prices. The compound annual growth rate shows that at the initial stage the growth in both volume and value of trading was double digit but after 2009 it becomes negative for all commodities except soybean. It is because of the government ban on futures trading for those commodities. Hence the performance of commodity futures market is always under scan of the government regulation, whether it is responsible for the increase in prices or not.

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The Research Paper aims at studying the banking sector in the light of human resource processes like preparing job description , designing competency dictionary, competency based PMS and TND programs. It gives a detailed view of the various challenges faced and training initiatives taken by the HR Departments of the banking sector. It also further provides the scope to study other HR processes in the banking sector which function from the output of the above mentioned processes. This paper also highlights importance of training programs and how they can give a competitive advantage to a company.

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   No of Download : 33    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
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सभ्यता एवं संस्कृति के सम्यव्‌ प्रसार तथा विकास के लिए एवं वैयक्तिक, सामाजिक और राष्ट्रीय प्रगति के लिए शिक्षा नितान्त आवश्यक है। प्राचीन शिक्षा प्रणाली की उपादेयता के कारण ही भारत का समस्त प्राचीन तथा विशाल वाङ्‌मय इतना सुरक्षित और समृद्ध बना रह सका, तथा भारतीय मानव सुसंस्कृत बन पाया।

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In the Indian sub-continent, the story of writing is a bit complicated. Although the Harappans were a literate people, but the oldest deciphered script is Brahmi, known from the Brahmi inscriptions of Anuradhapura in Sri Lanka of 4th century B.C. Many original books, commentaries, discussions and translation of Mahayana works into Tibetan language are the scholarly activities which took place during early medieval north India. Many scholars were invited to Tibet and China; similarly a large number of Chinese and Tibetan pilgrims came to India for studying Buddhist scriptures as well as pilgrimage. We also find some names of renounced women who were great scholars and teachers. But both Buddhist and Hindu scholarly activities received serve setback as a result of Turko-Afghan invasions. Hence, a great change in the scholarly activities and in the life of scholars came in with the Turko-Afghan invasions.

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Abstract

हिन्दी साहित्य पर यदि समुचित परिप्रेक्ष्य में विचार किया जाए तो स्पष्ट होता है कि हिन्दी साहित्य का इतिहास अत्यंत विस्तृत व प्राचीन है। सुप्रसिद्ध भाषा वैज्ञानिक डॉ हरदेव बाहरी के शब्दों में, 'हिन्दी साहित्य का इतिहास वस्तुतः वैदिक काल से आरम्भ होता है। यह कहना ही ठीक होगा कि वैदिक भाषा ही हिन्दी है। इस भाषा का दुर्भाग्य रहा है कि युग-युग में इसका नाम परिवर्तित होता रहा है। कभी 'वैदिक', कभी 'संस्कृत', कभी 'प्रकृत', कभी 'अपभ्रंश' और अब - हिन्दी।[1] आलोचक कह सकते हैं कि वैदिक संस्कृत और हिन्दी में तो जमीन-आसमान का अन्तर है। पर ध्यान देने योग्य है कि हिब्रू, रूसी, चीनी, जर्मन और तमिल आदि जिन भाषाओं को 'बहुत पुरानी' बताया जाता है, उनके भी प्राचीन और वर्तमान रूपों में जमीन-आसमान का ही अन्तर है। पर लोगों ने उन भाषाओं के नाम नहीं बदले और उनके परिवर्तित स्वरूपों को 'प्राचीन', 'मध्यकालीन', 'आधुनिक' आदि कहा गया जबकि हिन्दी के सन्दर्भ में प्रत्येक युग की भाषा का नया नाम रखा जाता रहा।

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   No of Download : 20    Submit Your Rating     Cite This       Full Article
Abstract

AGRICULTURE : The agricultural sector is India’s most vulnerable sector. With the livelihood of around 650 million people in the country being dependent on agriculture, India’s interests in the negotiations on agriculture are mainly defensive. India’s offensive interests lie in reducing the heavy subsidisation in developed countries. India’s interests in agriculture have always been dictated by the need to safeguard millions of small farmers who operate the majority of farm holdings in the countryside. Agriculture determines the very social fabric of India and is more a way of life and means of livelihood than a question of commerce. Further, India has 25 agro-climatic zones that, on the one hand, provide diversity to crop cultivation and, on the other, make crop rotation within a farm extremely difficult. Given these complexities in agriculture, India has essentially defensive interests in agriculture. India’s bound rates and applied agricultural tariffs are among the highest in the world.

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